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Flashcards in cardiovascular disease 1 Deck (35):
1

what is atherosclerosis?

accumulation of lipid rich plaques in arterial walls

2

what ischaemia?

the progressive narrowing of blood vessels with reduced blood supply and oxygen

3

what happens when plaque ruptures?

thrombus formation and occlusion of blood supply = infarction

4

risk factors of cardiovascular disease?

diabetes, smoking, high cholesterol, high bp, genes

5

what causes high cholesterol?

lifestyle, genes - hypercholesterolaemia

6

management of high cholesterol?

dietary modication, use of drugs - statins

7

in hypertension what are the systolic and diastolic values?

systolic > 160, diastolic >90

8

what is the incidence of hypertension?

15-20% in the western world, increase risk with age

9

what is primary hypertension?

no single underlying cause but related to obesity/alcohol/high salt/genetic

10

what is secondary hypertension?

endocrine - excess hormones
renal - kidneys failing

11

symptoms of very high bp?

firs, breathless, confusion, headaches, chest pain

12

if hypertension is untreated how to treat dentally?

postpone LA until controlled

13

drugs used in hypertension?

beta blockers, diuretics, ace inhibitors, angiotensin II antagonists, Ca channel blockers

14

how is diabetes relevant to hypertension?

increased blood sugar,

15

if diabetes is well controlled what happens to artherosclorosis risk?

reduced risk

16

how to handle hypertension pt's with genetic factors?

indentify those most at risk and try prevent

17

what is peripheral vascular disease?

artherosclorosis affecting peripheral vessels

18

where does peripheral vascular disease occur?

abdominal aorta, lower limbs

19

what is experienced in chronic peripeheral vascular disease?

intermittent claudication - leg pain in calf when walking

20

what is experiences in acute peripheral vascular disease?

ischaemic limb - pain at rest, pale, cold, numb limb - no sensation cant move

21

management of peripheral vascular disease?

risk factor modification, exercise programme, surgery - bypass grafts and stents

22

what is an abdominal aortic aneurysm

damage to the vessel wall from artherosclerosis = dilated aorta

23

what is there a risk of in abdominal aortic aneurysm?

risk of catastrophic rupture

24

what are the symptoms of abdomical aortic aneurysms?

mild abdomical pain, collapses with rupture

25

who is screened for abdominal aortic aneurysms?

men > 65 years

26

clinical manifestations of ischaemic heart disease?

angina, heart failure, acute coronary syndrome, heart attack, unstable angina, arrythmias

27

what is angina?

the narrowing of coronary arteries

28

what causes visceral pain in angina?

lack of blood to heart = ischaemia

29

where is visceral pain felt?

at central chest, down the left arm, atypical - jaw, back , upper abdomen

30

what is unstable angina?

angina felt at rest, unpredictable arrest, increased frequency with reduced amount of exertion

31

investigations for angina?

ECG, ECG under exercise,
coronary angiography

32

what is a coronary angiography?

accessed via femoral/ radial arteries
visualises blood vessels at heart

33

management of stable angina?

antiplatelets - aspirin +/- copidogrel
cholesterol - statins
symptom relief - b blockers, nitrates, ca antagonists

34

surgical interventions of angina?

coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass grafting

35

what are acute coronary syndromes?

MI, unstable angina,