Flashcards in Neurology 1 Deck (64)
Range of the glasgow coma scale?
3-15 ( 15 most consciousness)
way to asses level of consciousness?
Structural causes of impaired consciousness?
Global failure causes of impaired consciousness?
head injury most common
vascular - stroke - ischaemic/haemorrhagic
tumour - benign/primary/secondary
of brain - encephalitis, meningitis, malaria/other tropical diseases
of body - any other severe infection e/g pneumonia
overuse of sedative meds
what causes seizures/epilepsy?
excess electrical activity
pt has impaired consciousness, how to act?
identify and treat cause
what is epilepsy?
excessive electrical discharges in the brain
types of seizures?
focal/partial seizures - depends on what part of brain affected
generalised seizures - whole brain affected
simple focal seizures are?
shaking on one side
complex partial seizures are?
temporal lobe related
auras - olfactory hallucinations followed by odd behavious - automatisms
generalised seizures are usually?
grand mal/tonic clonic
tonic phase - limbs stiffen
clonic phase - limbs shake
may be incontinence, tongue biting, cyanosis
headache drowsy after
what are petit mal seizures?
type of generalised
-absence seizures - children- stare into space for 10 secs
-myoclonic - limbs jerk and collapse
-atonic - limbs collapse
primary causes of epilepsy?
often hereditaty involvement
secondary causes of epilepsy?
-acute/chronic - b/c stroke,tumour, injury, meningitis
-metabolic - electrolyte disturbance, alcohol withdrawl, hypoglycaemia. always check blood sugar
investigations for epilepsy?
brain imaging - MRI
drug tx of epilepsy?
surgical tx of epilepsy?
tumour removal, arteriovenous malformations, poorly controlled primary epilepsy
avoid treating epileptic pt when?
epilepsy poorly controlled
divisions of headaches?
primary headache disorders
secondary headache disorders - associated with mortality/permanent disability
red flags with headaches?
-severity - sudden onset
-raised intracranial pressure - worsening on positional change/strain, present on waking, nausea/vomitting
-meningism, fever, rash
associated with cancer or HIV
types of primary headaches?
what is a tension headaches?
stress related - tight band symmetrical around head
chronic, gradual onset
worse at end of day
treatment of a tension headache?
tricyclic antidepressants for prophylaxis
what is a migraine?
temporary reduction in blood flow then compensatory excess blood flow
8% more common in females