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Flashcards in Opthamology Deck (33):
1

what can cause cataracts?

age
congenital
toxic/drugs
systemic diseas

2

how are cataracts treated?

phacoemulsification - intra ocular lens, steroid and antibiotic drops

3

what is glaucoma?

optic neuropathy
most common cause of blindness in western world in over 60s
raised intraocular pressure
acute/chronic
vision field defecits
optic disc changes

4

treatment of glaucoma?

drops = decrease aqueous production
laser = raise aqueous drainage
surgery = raise aqueous drainage - trabeculectomy

5

what is ARMD?

age related macular degeneration
degenerative
build up of cellular waste products under the retina - drusen, atrophy - dry, or neurovascularisation - wet

6

treatment of ARMD?

dietary/ vitamin/antimicrobial supplements
activated laser injected drugs
IV injections - anti VEGF drugs, arrests/regresses neovascular process

7

what is diabetic eye disease caused by?

1. glycaemic vessel damage
2. leakage, microaneurysms, haemorrhages
3. Ischaemia
4. neovascularisation
5. neovascular haemorrhage/fibrosis

8

what is blindness at the macula caused by?

leakage, micoaneurysms, haemorrhages
ischaemia

9

what is blindness at the retina caused by?

neovascularisation

10

how to treat diabetic eye disease?

glycaemic control
bp/cholesterol/aspirin
laser
vitrectomy

11

what is blepharitis?

edges of the eyelid are inflammed

12

what is dry eye?

eyes do not produce enough tears or tears evaporate too quickly

13

what is subconjunctival haemorrhage?

bleeding under the conjunctiva

14

what is keratitis?

inflammation of the cornea

15

what is acute glaucoma?

fluid pressure rises too fast

16

what s uveitis?

inflammation of uvea - middle part + iris

17

what is orbital cellulitis?

inflammation of tissues behind the orbital septum

18

what forms can loss of vision present in?

acute/chronic
painful/painless

19

what is acute/painful loss of vision?

keratitis
uveitis
acute glaucoma
optic neuritis
endophthlamitis

20

what is acute/painless loss of vision?

retinal artery occlusion
retinal venous occlusion
ischaemic optic neuropathy
vitreous haemorrhage
retinal detachment

21

what is chronic painless loss of vision?

refractiv error
cataract
open angle glaucoma
ARMD
diabetic
central disease

22

what is an autoimmune condition affecting the eyes and the mouth?

sjogrens
primary or secondary
affects salivary and lacrimal glands
gritty eyes, adic pupil

23

what kind of mucotaneous ulcers may be seen in the eyes and the mouth?

steven johnsen syndrome
pemphigoid
reiters
behcets
herpes simplex
varicella zoster
SLE
crohns

24

what is Reiger syndrome?

chromosome 4 - epidermal growth factor
hypodontia/microdontia
maxillary hypoplasia
paraumbilical skin tag

25

what is Nance Horan?

cataracts
teeth abnormalities
rare
corneal opacity/microcornea
nystagmus
mental/physical retardation

26

what is oculo dental auricular malformation?

rare
micropthalmia
ocular hypoplasia
ocular colobomas
wide spaced/underdeveloped teeth

27

what is oro facial cardio dental syndrome?

radioculomegaly
malpositioned teeth
oligodontia
congenital cataract
cardiac abnormalities
skeletal abnormalities

28

what are mucopolysaccharides?

group of inherited disorders - hurlers/hunters
widespaced teeth, corneal opacity, pigmentory retinopathy, optic atrophy, macrocephaly
coarse, facial features, short stature, hypermobile joints

29

what is stickler syndrome?

collagen disorder
abnormal vitreous, myopia, retinal detachment
orofacial and dental abnormalities

30

what is marfans?

tall thin, arachnodactyly, arm span > height
hypermobile, muscular development
high arched palate
ectopia lentis
myopia retinal detachment
iris abnormal
keratoconus

31

what issues may UV lights cause to the eyes?

corneal burning

32

what may anesthesia cause to the eyes?

type VI/VII palsies

33

why might abscesses cause a problem with the eyes?

metastatic infection