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Flashcards in Gastroenterology Deck (58)
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1

what takes place in the gut?

digestion/absorption of nutrients
stomach - alcohol and water
duodenum - iron and B12
jejunum - folate
large intestine - water

2

what takes place in the pancreas?

exocrine portion - production of enzymes to digest food
endocrine - production of insulin

3

what takes place in the gall bladder?

concentration/storgae of bile
fat digestion and absorption

4

what takes place in the liver?

metabolism of nutrients and toxins
production of bile
protein synthesis

5

GI symptoms?

pain - localised/referred
dysphagia
dyspepsia - discomfort of upper tract
nausea/vomitting
diarrhoea
constipation
steatorrhoea
bleeding - haemaemesis, melanea - upper and lower tract
weight loss

6

investigations for upper GI tract?

endoscopy

7

investigations for lower GI tract?

sigmoidoscopy
colonoscopy

8

radiographs show?

plain
contrast - caused by barium swallow, meal, enema

9

ultrasound taken to look at?

especially biliary tract, liver

10

MRI taken to look at?

biliary tract, liver, pancreas
gut

11

antacids suppress acid - what are examples of antacids?

aluminium hydroxide
calcium carbonate - rennie
aligante based - gaviscon

12

gastric acid reduction caused by?

histamine receptor antagonists - H2 blockers
ranitidine, cimetidine

PPI's - omeprazole, lansoprazole

13

when do you treat the CNS with anti emetics? and what are some examples?

when there is chemical stimulation of the vomitting centre treat the CNS
domperidone
metoclopramide ondasteron

14

when to treat the gut? with what?

distension of the gut is causing sickness
anti histamines - cyclizine
ondansetron - serotonin antagonist

15

what is GORD?

gastro oseophageal reflux disease
excess acid at oseophageal sphinctor
= loss of tone
delayed gastric emptying

16

what is GORD associated with?

associated with obesity
lying flat
fatty foods
smoking

17

gord symptoms?
diagnosed by?

heart burn
endoscopy

18

how to treat gord?

lifestyle
drugs - antacids, PPI's
rarely surgery

19

complications caused by GORD?

stricture formation
cancer - via barretts oseophagus

20

what is peptic ulcer disease?

gastric/duodenal - gastric can become malignant
15-20% of population affected, more in elderly and men
caused by helicopter pylori
NSAIDS - esp gastric

21

symptoms of peptic ulcer disease?

epigastric pain
dyspepsia
vomitting
anorexia

22

complications from peptic ulcers?

bleeding - haematemesis, malaena
perforation

23

investigations for peptic ulcers?

endoscopy
biopsy if gastric
H.pylori - biopsy, breath test, serology

24

treatment of acute ulcer?

endoscopically stop bleeding
rarely surgery

25

treatment of non acute ulcer?

acid suppression with PPI
tx of h pylori - PPI/antibiotics

26

what is a hiatus hernia?

may cause heartburn
structural abnormality of the stomach leaving segment above diaphragm
treat with meds or surgery - flundoplication

27

dentally be cautious with what meds?

NSAIDS, corticosteroids

28

what might you see with oral ulceration that might indicate anaemia?

chronic blood loss

29

what might acid reflux cause?

NCTSL

30

what is coeliac disease?

multi symptom autoimmune disease not an allergy
sensitivity to gluten - wheat, rye, barley
small intestinal villous atrophy STVA