Flashcards in Gastroenterology Deck (58)
what takes place in the gut?
digestion/absorption of nutrients
stomach - alcohol and water
duodenum - iron and B12
jejunum - folate
large intestine - water
what takes place in the pancreas?
exocrine portion - production of enzymes to digest food
endocrine - production of insulin
what takes place in the gall bladder?
concentration/storgae of bile
fat digestion and absorption
what takes place in the liver?
metabolism of nutrients and toxins
production of bile
pain - localised/referred
dyspepsia - discomfort of upper tract
bleeding - haemaemesis, melanea - upper and lower tract
investigations for upper GI tract?
investigations for lower GI tract?
contrast - caused by barium swallow, meal, enema
ultrasound taken to look at?
especially biliary tract, liver
MRI taken to look at?
biliary tract, liver, pancreas
antacids suppress acid - what are examples of antacids?
calcium carbonate - rennie
aligante based - gaviscon
gastric acid reduction caused by?
histamine receptor antagonists - H2 blockers
PPI's - omeprazole, lansoprazole
when do you treat the CNS with anti emetics? and what are some examples?
when there is chemical stimulation of the vomitting centre treat the CNS
when to treat the gut? with what?
distension of the gut is causing sickness
anti histamines - cyclizine
ondansetron - serotonin antagonist
what is GORD?
gastro oseophageal reflux disease
excess acid at oseophageal sphinctor
= loss of tone
delayed gastric emptying
what is GORD associated with?
associated with obesity
how to treat gord?
drugs - antacids, PPI's
complications caused by GORD?
cancer - via barretts oseophagus
what is peptic ulcer disease?
gastric/duodenal - gastric can become malignant
15-20% of population affected, more in elderly and men
caused by helicopter pylori
NSAIDS - esp gastric
symptoms of peptic ulcer disease?
complications from peptic ulcers?
bleeding - haematemesis, malaena
investigations for peptic ulcers?
biopsy if gastric
H.pylori - biopsy, breath test, serology
treatment of acute ulcer?
endoscopically stop bleeding
treatment of non acute ulcer?
acid suppression with PPI
tx of h pylori - PPI/antibiotics
what is a hiatus hernia?
may cause heartburn
structural abnormality of the stomach leaving segment above diaphragm
treat with meds or surgery - flundoplication
dentally be cautious with what meds?
what might you see with oral ulceration that might indicate anaemia?
chronic blood loss
what might acid reflux cause?