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Flashcards in Dermatology Deck (37):
1

what is acne?

disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus
peaks in adolescence

2

what causes acne?

excess sebum secretion
hormones
obstructuion of pilosebaceous duct
bacteria
drugs

3

how to treat acne?

local abrasives
topical antibiotics
topical vitamin a analogues
isotretinoin

4

what is rosecea?

affects face of adults
flushing erythema/telangectasia, inflammed papules, pustules
may be associated with conjunctivitis

5

what might rosecea be triggered by?

spicy food
stress
alcohol
temp change
sunlight

6

how to treat rosacea?

avoid triggering factors
antibiotics - topical +/- systemic
cosmetic camouflage
laser
isotretinoin

7

what should you avoid treating a rosacea pt with?

topical steroids

8

what is impetigo?

caused by staph or strep
contagious
exudate and yellow crusting
may blister

tx - antibiotics

9

what may impetigo trigger?

glomerulonephritis

10

what is folliculitis?

superficial infection of hair follicle
Staph aureus
papules/pustules + 1-2mm of erythema

11

what is a furuncle?

boil/small perifollicular abscess - follicle destroyed
staph aureus
tender/inflamed

12

what is a stye?

a furuncle affecting the sebaceous gland of the eye margin

13

what is a carbuncle?

a 3-10cm nodule

14

what is erysipelas?

form of cellulitis
group a beta haemolytic strep
spreading red edge,sharp line of demarcation
discomfort/fever/malaise
tx with systemic antibiotic

15

what are viral warts caused by?

HPV

16

how to warts resolve?

on their own
by cryotherapy

17

what is molluscum contagiosum?

DNA pox virus
umbilicated papules
may become secondary infected
resolve spont/cryotherapy

18

what is hand foot and mouth caused by?

coxsakie A virus
vesicles with red halos @ hands/feet, erosions in mouth
resolves in 2 weeks

19

what is dermatophyte?

cause ringworm/tinea at various body sites
itchy, erythematous scaly plaque with peripheral spread or boggy pustular area with hair loss
may be masked with use of topical steroids

20

dermatophyte treatment?

skin scrapings
woods lamp exam
topical plus/minus systemic antifungals

21

what is acute eczema?

red swollen papules/vesicles

22

what is chronic eczema?

scaly pigmented thickened accentuated skin markings

23

what two forms may eczema be?

endogenous - atopic/varicose eczema
exogenous - allergic contact/dermatitis etc

24

how is eczema treated?

may be come superinfected
avoid irritants, moisturise, steroids, UVL

25

how is patch testing done?

allergens applied to finn chambers - applied to back for 24 hours

26

what is psoirasis?

chronic non inflammatory disease
well demarcated scaly plaques
different clinical patterns

27

where does psoriasis commonly affect?

scalp/hairline
nails - pitting/subungal hyperkeratosis

28

psoriasis treatments?

tar, dithranol,vit D creams, phototherapy, systemic immunosuppresants

29

what is lichen planus?

icthy violaceous flat topped pustules on wrists and legs
50% have oral involvement
may be genital involvement
rare ulcerative mucosal form may lead to malignancy

30

what is bullous pemphigoid?

autoimmune
large tense blisters on erythematous base
mouth rarely affected
IgG antibodies bind to basement membrane

31

what is cicatrical pemphigoid?
tx?

blisters/ulcers affecting mucous membranes
lesions heal with scarring
1/3 pt's have skin involvement
steroids plus/minus immunosuppresants

32

what is pemphigus vulgaris?
tx?

life threatning autoimmune disease
IgG antibodies bind to intercellular cement. Flacid blisters/erosions
oral lesions pathognomonic
- high dose steroids/immunosuppressives

33

what is erythema multiforme?

reactive state
variety of triggers - herpes simplex/other infections, drugs, cancers, radiotherapy, CT disease

34

what lesions are seen in erythema multiforme?

-lesion - limbs/palms/sores
mouth involvement
bullae may form
usually self limiting
- Steven Johnsosn syndrome - acute onset with severe mucosal involvement, systemic disturbance, risk of renal failure and bronchopneumonia

35

actinic keratoses and bowens disease are more common in what patients?

high risk if pt immunosuppressed

36

what is actinic keratoses?

hyperkeratotic lesions on sun exposed skin
can progress to squamous cell cancer - not common

37

what is bowens disease?

intra epidermal squamous cell cancer
common on lower legs
face, dorsal of hands etc