Flashcards in Endocrinology Deck (52)
3 basic problems with endocrine system?
- excess hormones - widespread effect
- reduced hormones - widespread effect
- physical gland enlargement - mass pressure/effect
pituitary gland produces what hormone that encourages the thyroid to produce T4/T3?
Thyroxine excess is a disease of the thyroid causing?
Thyroxine lack is a disease of the thyroid causing?
Thyroid mass changes is a disease of the thyroid causing?
incidence of hyperthyroidism?
2-3% of women
age common = 20-40 years
most common causes of hyperthyroidism?
autoimmune e.g graves disease = most common
goitre or toxic adenoma
symptoms of hyperthyroidism?
sweating, heat intolerance
irrtable, poor sleep, anxiety, palpitations
excess appetite, weight loss, diorrhea
signs of hyperthyroidism?
warm moist skin
tachycardia - irregular heart rate
increased blood pressure, heart failure
what is graves disease?
loss of visual activity
signs of graves disease?
diagnose graves disease?
blood tests - thyroid function - low TSH, high T3/4, autoantibodies
management of graves disease?
anti thyroid drugs - carbimazole, propylthiouracid
beta blockers - control symptoms while other tx
surgery - control disease first, poss eye surgery
radioactive iodine - caution if youner/pregnant/breastfeeding
incidence of hypothyroidism?
mean age of diagnosis = 60 yrs
causes of hypothyroidism?
autoimmune most common = destructive
iatrogenic - surgery, radioiodine
iodine deficiency - rare - iodised salt/fish, poor mountainous areas
rarely pituitary disease
symptoms of hypothyroidism?
mental slowness/poor memory
signs of hypothyroidism?
loss of eyebrows
coarsening of features
acute - rare - coma - hypothermia
diagnosis of hypothyroidism?
blood tests - thyroid function tests - high TSH, low T4/T3
management of hypothyroidism?
what is goitre?
types of goitre?
- no association with intrinsic thyroid disease - simple cysts/adenomas - iodine deficiency
- associated with intrinsic thyroid disease - autoimmune, toxic multi nodular goitre/adenoma
- Malignant = rare
Goitres can cause?
retro sternal extension = dysphagia/breathing difficulties
what is an ominous sign of goitre?
look for lymph node enlargement
radiology - ultrasound/radioisotope scans
fine needle aspiration
treatment of goitre?
remove underlying cause
may need surgery
anti thyroid drug carbimazole can cause what orally?
types of adrenal disease?
- excess corticosteroid - Cushings
- deficient corticosteroid production - Addisons
what is Cushings syndrome?
excess ACTH caused by pituitary adenoma
or ectopic production by lungs = cancer
excess corticosteroids caused by?