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Flashcards in Endocrinology Deck (52)
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1

3 basic problems with endocrine system?

- excess hormones - widespread effect
- reduced hormones - widespread effect
- physical gland enlargement - mass pressure/effect

2

pituitary gland produces what hormone that encourages the thyroid to produce T4/T3?

TSH

3

Thyroxine excess is a disease of the thyroid causing?

hyperthyroidism
thyrotoxicosis

4

Thyroxine lack is a disease of the thyroid causing?

hypothyroidism

5

Thyroid mass changes is a disease of the thyroid causing?

Goitre

6

incidence of hyperthyroidism?

2-3% of women
0.2% men
age common = 20-40 years

7

most common causes of hyperthyroidism?

autoimmune e.g graves disease = most common
goitre or toxic adenoma
pituitary driven

8

symptoms of hyperthyroidism?

sweating, heat intolerance
irrtable, poor sleep, anxiety, palpitations
excess appetite, weight loss, diorrhea
breathlessness

9

signs of hyperthyroidism?

warm moist skin
tachycardia - irregular heart rate
increased blood pressure, heart failure
fine tremor
goitre

10

what is graves disease?

eye disease
exopthalmus
opthalmaplegia
lid lag/retraction
loss of visual activity

11

signs of graves disease?

pretibial myxoedema

12

diagnose graves disease?

clinical
blood tests - thyroid function - low TSH, high T3/4, autoantibodies
radiology sometimes

13

management of graves disease?

anti thyroid drugs - carbimazole, propylthiouracid
beta blockers - control symptoms while other tx
surgery - control disease first, poss eye surgery
radioactive iodine - caution if youner/pregnant/breastfeeding

14

incidence of hypothyroidism?

2% women
0.2% men
mean age of diagnosis = 60 yrs

15

causes of hypothyroidism?

autoimmune most common = destructive
iatrogenic - surgery, radioiodine
iodine deficiency - rare - iodised salt/fish, poor mountainous areas
rarely pituitary disease

16

symptoms of hypothyroidism?

cold intolerance
weight gain
constipation
hoarse voice
puffed face/extremities
mental slowness/poor memory
hair loss

17

signs of hypothyroidism?

slow pulse
large tongue
deep voice
thin/dry hair
loss of eyebrows
goitre
coarsening of features
acute - rare - coma - hypothermia

18

diagnosis of hypothyroidism?

clinical
blood tests - thyroid function tests - high TSH, low T4/T3
auto antibodies
radiology

19

management of hypothyroidism?

replacement
thyroxine
levothyroxine

20

what is goitre?

thyroid masses

21

types of goitre?

- no association with intrinsic thyroid disease - simple cysts/adenomas - iodine deficiency

- associated with intrinsic thyroid disease - autoimmune, toxic multi nodular goitre/adenoma

- Malignant = rare

22

Goitres can cause?

retro sternal extension = dysphagia/breathing difficulties

23

what is an ominous sign of goitre?

look for lymph node enlargement

24

goitre investigations?

radiology - ultrasound/radioisotope scans
fine needle aspiration
blood tests

25

treatment of goitre?

remove underlying cause
may need surgery

26

anti thyroid drug carbimazole can cause what orally?

neutropenia
taste distrubances

27

types of adrenal disease?

- excess corticosteroid - Cushings
- deficient corticosteroid production - Addisons

28

what is Cushings syndrome?

excess ACTH caused by pituitary adenoma
or ectopic production by lungs = cancer

29

excess corticosteroids caused by?

adrenal adenomas
carcinomas
iatrogenic

30

Cushings syndrome has what systemic risk factors?

can cause high bp
diabetes
pt prone to infection