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Flashcards in LEARN BETTER Deck (46):
1

what kind of anaemia can cause macrocytic cells?

folate
B12

2

what might a lymphoma patient present with dentally?

atypical infection
bleeding
lymphadenopathy
gum infiltration

3

what are the stages of clot formation?

vasoconstricition
platelet aggregation
coagulation cascade

4

what can cause immune mediated platelet destruction?

portal hypertension
autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura

5

what does tranexamic acid do?

inhibits clot breakdown

6

what can increase warfarin activity?

amoxicillin
anti fungals
analgesics

7

what can decrease warfarin activity?

carbamezipine
nystatin
analgesics

8

what are oral signs of coagulopathy?

spontaneous bleeding

9

what is idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura?

autoimmune prolonged bleeding
avoid NSAIDs and aspirin
treat with steroids

10

what is normal platelet count?

150-400x10(power of nine)/litre

11

how does alcohol cause coagulopathy?

bleeding because cirrhosis
thrombocytopenia because bone marrow suppressed

12

what type of anaemia can cause candidiasis?

B12
folate

13

coeliac disease causes what kind of anaemia?

folate
iron

14

what type of xrays can be taken to look at GI system?

plain
contrast using barium swallow

15

what can peptic ulcers cause?

bleeding and perforation

16

how to treat coeliac disease?

osteoporosis prophylaxis
gluten free

17

what are some extraintestinal signs of IBD?

autoimmune hepatitis/arthritis
skin lesions
DVT/PE
ocular inflammation

18

what could be some oral signs of crohns?

poss bronj
ulcers
mucosal tags
cobbletone mucosa
angular chelitis

19

what is SLE?

autoimmune multi system disease
antibodies against nuclear cell components
widespread vascular immune complex deposition

20

what other body systems does SLE affect?

skin - photosensitivity and butterfly rash
joints - small joint arthritis
raynauds
nervous system - neuropathy
heart - valvular/aseptic endocarditis
lungs = effusions
kidney failure

21

what can hyperparathyroidism cause?

hypercalcaemia - malaise/depression
take bloods
tx - poss parathyroidectomy

22

what can pagets disease cause?

bone deformities = enlarged skull/deafness/nerve compression

23

what is osteocalcaemia?

vit d deficiency - no sunlight/poor absorption
diffuse bony pains

24

what are common fractures in osteoporosis?

vertebral
hip
wrist

25

how is osteoporosis treated?

DEXA screening
calcium and vitamin D

26

what is a new medication to treat sjogrens?

pilocaipine 5mg orally/day

27

what is orthana?

spray
gastric mucin, xylitol, NaF

28

what is bioextra?

gel
lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, xylitol

29

what is in salivix pastills?

malic acid

30

what is the pathophysiology of COPD?

emphysema = alveolar destruction
bronchitis = airway inflammation, increased mucous, reduced ventilation

31

what are some CF symptoms in childhood?

recurrent resp infections
malabsorption
bowel obstructions
pancreatic duct destruction

32

what are some CF symptoms in adulthood?

osteoporosis
male infertility
diabetes

33

what is hyperthyroidism caused by?

autoimmune
toxic adenoma/goitre
pituitary driven

34

what is hypothyroidism caused by?

autoimmune
iatrogenic
iodine deficiency
rarely pituitary disease

35

what is cushings disease caused by?

adrenal adeoma
carcinoma
iatrogenic

36

what can cushings cause?

diabetes
high bp
infection prone

37

what is addisons disease?

iatrogenic withdrawl
hypopituitarism
adrenal obstruction

38

what is type 1 diabetes?

pancreatic beta cell destruction

39

what is type 2 diabetes?

insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction

40

what happens normally in a cell with insulin?

insulin binds to receptor, release of glucose transport proteins and glucose enters cell

41

what happens in an insulin resistant cell?

receptor not as responsive, not all glucose enters cell and results in a build up in the blood

42

what should blood glucose be before meals?
after?

4-7

43

what are macrovascular complications of diabetes?

IHD
stroke

44

what are microvascular complications of diabetes?

neuropathy
nephropathy
retinopathy

45

what does a ketone monitor test?
what is the norm?

beta hydroxybutate
aim 0-8mmol/l

46

what can corticosteroids cause?

hyperglycaemia