Carcinogenesis and CA Flashcards Preview

CVPR Pulmonary (Exam 3) > Carcinogenesis and CA > Flashcards

Flashcards in Carcinogenesis and CA Deck (32):
1

Pts with COPD are at a _____x increased risk of developing lung CA.

4-5x

2

Name a tumor suppressor gene whose mutation is important in lung CA carcinogenesis.

p53

3

Name 3 oncogenes important in for lung CA carcinogenesis.

1. MYC
2. JUN
3. FOS

4

Lung cancer is classified into two main categories, ____ and ____.

non-small cell (NSCLC) and small cell (SCLC)

5

Adenocarcinoma in-situ was previously called _____.

bronchoalveolar cell

6

Cough, anorexia, weakness and weight loss are the most common presenting symptoms in patients with ______.

undiagnosed lung cancer

7

____, _____, _____, and _____ are the most common presenting symptoms in patients with undiagnosed lung cancer.

Cough, anorexia, weakness and weight loss

8

What is Horner's Syndrome?

ptosis, anhidrosis, and miosis from inferior cervical ganglion and sympathetic chain involvement

9

This is ptosis, anhidrosis, and miosis from inferior cervical ganglion and sympathetic chain involvement.

Horner's Syndrome

10

What is bronchorrhea?

copious amounts of ‘salty’ sputum

11

This is copious amounts of ‘salty’ sputum.

bronchorrhea

12

Lung cancer commonly spreads to ____, ____, ____, and ____.

the adrenal glands, liver, brain, and bone

13

Name 6 endocrinologic effects of lung CA paraneoplastic syndromes.

Hypercalcemia
Hyponatremia
Cushing’s syndrome
Gynecomastia
Acromegaly
Hypoglycemia

14

Name 5 neurologic effects of lung CA paraneoplastic syndromes.

Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic syndrome
Peripheral Neuropathy
Cerebellar Degeneration
Limbic Encephalitis
Encephalomyelitis

15

Name 4 MSK effects of lung CA paraneoplastic syndromes.

Clubbing
Hypertrophic Pulmonary Osteoarthropathy
Dermatomyositis
Polymyositis

16

Name 6 hematologic effects of lung CA paraneoplastic syndromes.

Anemia
Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia
Leukocytosis/Thrombocytosis
Vasculitis
Noninfectious Thrombotic Endocarditis
Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

17

How is lung CA diagnosed?

biopsy or testing of other tissue samples

18

Elevated ______ suggests bone metastases.

alkaline phosphatase

19

Elevated alkaline phosphatase suggests ______.

bone metastases

20

Due to the high incidence of micrometastases early in the disease state, small cell lung cancer is divided into two stages: ______ (25-30%; tumor is limited to ipsilateral hemithorax including contralateral mediastinal nodes); and ______ (70-75%; tumor extends beyond the hemithorax including pleural effusions).

limited disease; extensive disease

21

Due to the high incidence of micrometastases early in the disease state, small cell lung cancer is divided into two stages: limited disease (25-30%; tumor is limited to ______ including contralateral mediastinal nodes); and extensive disease (70-75%; tumor extends beyond the hemithorax including ______).

ipsilateral hemithorax; pleural effusions

22

Due to the high incidence of micrometastases early in the disease state, small cell lung cancer is divided into two stages: limited disease (25-30%; tumor is limited to ipsilateral hemithorax including contralateral ______); and extensive disease (70-75%; tumor extends beyond _____ including pleural effusions).

mediastinal nodes; the hemithorax

23

SCLC is typically treated with _____ and ______.

chemotherapy, radiation

24

What is the tx for NSCLC?

surgery

25

Dx?
A solitary mass, typically

a solitary pulmonary nodule/coin lesion

26

What is a solitary pulmonary nodule?

a solitary mass, typically

27

What are the s/s of a solitary pulmonary nodule?

usually none

28

_______ is a soil organism endemic to the desert southwest, southern California, and northern Mexico that can cause solitary pulmonary nodules.

Coccidiodomycosis

29

Coccidiodomycosis is a soil organism endemic to the desert southwest, southern California, and northern Mexico that can cause ______.

solitary pulmonary nodules

30

_______ is a fungus that lives in soil fertilized by bird or bat droppings and is commonly found in the central and south-central United States that can cause solitary pulmonary nodules.

Histoplasmosis

31

Histoplasmosis is a fungus that lives in soil fertilized by bird or bat droppings and is commonly found in the central and south-central United States that can cause _______.

solitary pulmonary nodules

32

What is the most common cause of multiple pulmonary nodules?

metastatic disease