Mechanism of Breathing/Compliance Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Mechanism of Breathing/Compliance Deck (33)
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1

This is a disease caused by the infiltration of connective tissue.

fibrosis

2

The most important ______ muscle is the diaphragm, which is innervated solely from the ______ nerves.

inspiratory; phrenic

2

_______ is a disease caused by the loss of elastic tissue, which results in high lung compliance.

Emphysema

3

The most important inspiratory muscle is the _____, which is innervated solely from the phrenic nerves.

diaphragm

3

The lungs have ______ at their volume at rest, so that it is easier for them to inflate during normal breathing. At high volumes, the ______ decreases, making expansion more difficult.

high compliance; compliance

3

A high compliance will provide less elastic recoil pressure, making it difficult to _____.

expire

4

What is the pressure outside the lung called?

the intrapleural pressure (PIP)

4

What is transpulmonary pressure (PTP)?

the difference between PL and the intrapleural pressure PIP (PTP = PL - PIP) the driving force for changing lung volume during breathing

6

The inherent tendency of the lung to recoil back toward its intrinsic equilibrium position produces a transient positive pressure inside of lung, often referred to as a lung’s ______.

elastic recoil pressure

7

Compliance, C, provides a measure of the _____ of the lung.

elastic properties

8

Fibrosis is associated with _____ compliance.

low

9

Emphysema is a disease caused by _______, which results in high lung compliance.

the loss of elastic tissue

10

What are the chest wall abnormalities that cause respiratory problems from changed compliance?

abnormalities of the bony thorax abnormalities of the soft tissue (obesity) old age

12

During inspiration, air flows into the lung because the lung pressure becomes negative with respect to Pmouth (always at atmospheric pressure), while during expiration, air flows out of the lung because ______.

the lung pressure becomes positive with respect to Pmouth

12

Emphysema is a disease caused by the loss of elastic tissue, which results in ______ compliance.

high

14

During inspiration, air flows into the lung because _____(always at atmospheric pressure), while during expiration, air flows out of the lung because the lung pressure becomes positive with respect to Pmouth.

the lung pressure becomes negative with respect to Pmouth

15

When the diaphragm contracts alone, the upper ribs are drawn _____.

inwards

16

The source of PIP is?

the intrinsic elastic properties of the lung and the chest wall

18

The inherent tendency of the lung to recoil back toward its intrinsic equilibrium position produces a transient ______ inside of lung, often referred to as a lung’s elastic recoil pressure.

positive pressure

18

_____ provides a measure of the elastic properties of the lung.

Compliance, C

20

What is the PIP at the end of inspiration?

–30 cm H2O

21

Compliance is defined as _______.

the change in volume per unit change in pressure C = ΔV/ΔP

23

What is fibrosis?

a disease caused by the infiltration of connective tissue

24

Maximal tension (maximal force) for the diaphragm is achieved at ____% of its resting length.

130

25

_______ is defined as the change in volume per unit change in pressure, C = ΔV/ΔP.

Compliance is defined as the change in volume per unit change in pressure, C = ΔV/ΔP.

26

What is the PIP at the end of expiration?

–5 cm H2O

27

A high compliance will provide ______, making it difficult to expire.

less elastic recoil pressure

28

A highly compliant lung is one that has ______.

lost its elasticity

29

What is hysteresis?

the different transpulmonary pressures required to effect a given volume change

30

Compliance is inversely proportional to the _____ of the lung.

elasticity