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Flashcards in Pulmonary Defense Mechanisms Deck (18)
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1

How does chronic EtOH consumption effect pulmonary host defenses?

  1. altered flora and increased gram (-) colonization
  2. blunted cough and gag reflexes--> aspiration
  3. decreased mucociliary clearance
  4. impaired immunity and epi function

1

How is a smoker's cell differential in a bronchoalveolar lavage different from that of a normal person?

smokers have a dramatic increase in the number of macrophages

2

This is an auto recessive defect of dynein arms of cilia causing sinusitis, bronchiectasis, situs inversus, infertility.

Primary ciliary dyskinesia

2

What is the function of airway epi fluid?

Contribute to maintenance of airway structure and function

4

What is the normal cell differential in a bronchoalveolar lavage?

  • 90-95% macrophages

5

Development of an _____ is an essential initial step in the generation of the granuloma.

alveolitis

6

What are the 2 major cell types in the development of a granuloma?

  • activated T cells
  • macrophages

7

What is Kartagener's Syndrome?

combination of situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, and bronchiectasis

7

What cytokines do Th1s secrete in developing a granuloma?

  • IL-2
  • IFN-gamma
  • TNF-alpha

9

What is airway epi fluid made up of?

  • Antimicrobial peptides and proteins (e.g., β defensins, cathelicidin, lysozyme and lactoferrin)
  • Antioxidants
  • Antiproteases
  • IgA

11

What are the mechanisms of airway clearance?

  1. air turbulence in nasal passages, trachea, large airways
  2. large particles deposit into mucus
  3. coughing, sneezing, swallowing

12

What does TLR stimulation do?

it induces a proinflammatory response

13

What is Primary ciliary dyskinesia?

an auto recessive defect of dynein arms of cilia causing sinusitis, bronchiectasis, situs inversus, inferility

14

In subjects with sarcoidosis, a dramatic increase in which cell type in the bronchoalveolar lavage occurs.

Lymphocytes

15

This syndrome is the combination of situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, and bronchiectasis.

Kartagener’s syndrome

16

Which of the following is the predominant cell type in the bronchoalveolar lavage of normal subjects?

Macrophages

17

Development of an alveolitis is an essential initial step in the generation of the ______.

granuloma

18

How are smaller particles cleared from the airways?

they're injested by resident macs and/or dendritic cells