How does chronic EtOH consumption effect pulmonary host defenses?
- altered flora and increased gram (-) colonization
- blunted cough and gag reflexes--> aspiration
- decreased mucociliary clearance
- impaired immunity and epi function
How is a smoker's cell differential in a bronchoalveolar lavage different from that of a normal person?
smokers have a dramatic increase in the number of macrophages
This is an auto recessive defect of dynein arms of cilia causing sinusitis, bronchiectasis, situs inversus, infertility.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia
What is the function of airway epi fluid?
Contribute to maintenance of airway structure and function
What is the normal cell differential in a bronchoalveolar lavage?
- 90-95% macrophages
Development of an _____ is an essential initial step in the generation of the granuloma.
What are the 2 major cell types in the development of a granuloma?
- activated T cells
What is Kartagener's Syndrome?
combination of situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, and bronchiectasis
What cytokines do Th1s secrete in developing a granuloma?
What is airway epi fluid made up of?
- Antimicrobial peptides and proteins (e.g., β defensins, cathelicidin, lysozyme and lactoferrin)
What are the mechanisms of airway clearance?
- air turbulence in nasal passages, trachea, large airways
- large particles deposit into mucus
- coughing, sneezing, swallowing
What does TLR stimulation do?
it induces a proinflammatory response
What is Primary ciliary dyskinesia?
an auto recessive defect of dynein arms of cilia causing sinusitis, bronchiectasis, situs inversus, inferility
In subjects with sarcoidosis, a dramatic increase in which cell type in the bronchoalveolar lavage occurs.
This syndrome is the combination of situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, and bronchiectasis.
Which of the following is the predominant cell type in the bronchoalveolar lavage of normal subjects?
Development of an alveolitis is an essential initial step in the generation of the ______.
How are smaller particles cleared from the airways?
they're injested by resident macs and/or dendritic cells