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Flashcards in Peds Lung Diseases Deck (51):
1

Pediatric pulmonary disease accounts for almost 50% of deaths in children younger than _____.

1 year

2

______ accounts for almost 50% of deaths in children younger than 1 year.

Pediatric pulmonary disease

3

An infant’s larynx and trachea are significantly _____ than an adult.

smaller

4

The narrowest part of the pediatric airway is ______.

just below the vocal cords at the level of the cricoid cartilage

5

The narrowest part of the adult airway is _____.

the vocal cords

6

Extrathoracic airway obstruction usually causes _____.

stridor or a barking cough

7

What are the 4 D's of airway obstruction?

  • Dyspnea
  • Drooling
  • Dysphagia
  • Distress

8

What is Laryngomalacia?

a benign congenital disorder in which the cartilaginous support for the supraglottic structures is underdeveloped

9

When does Laryngomalacia present?

within the first few months of life

10

This is a benign congenital disorder in which the cartilaginous support for the supraglottic structures is underdeveloped.

Laryngomalacia

11

This is the most common cause of persistent stridor in infants and usually is seen in the first 6 weeks of life.

Laryngomalacia

12

What are the s/s of croup?

upper respiratory tract symptoms is followed by a barking cough and stridor but no (or only low grade) fever

13

How do xrays look in croup?

subglottic narrowing-steeple sign

14

What is the steeple sign on xray indicative of?

croup

15

What is the tx for croup w/o stridor at rest?

supportive care, maybe inhaled mist

16

What is the tx for croup w/ stridor at rest?

  • Nebulized epinephrine
  • glucocorticoids

17

What usually causes epiglottis?

Haemophilus influenzae type B

18

Why is epiglottitis a medical emergency?

it can rapidly lead to life-threatening upper airway obstruction

19

What are the s/s of epiglottis?

  • sudden onset of high fever
  • dysphagia
  • drooling
  • muffled voice
  • inspiratory retractions
  • cyanosis
  • soft stridor
  • often sit in the sniffing dog position

20

How is epiglottitis definitively diagnosed?

visualization of the airway

21

What is the first step in treating epiglottitis?

endotrach intubation

22

What is bacterial tracheitis?

a severe, life-threatening form of laryngotracheo-bronchitis

23

This is a severe, life-threatening form of laryngotracheo-bronchitis.

Bacterial tracheitis

24

What is the most common cause of bacterial tracheitis?

Staphylococcus aureus

25

What are the s/s of bacterial tracheitis?

starts similar to viral croup, but patients develop higher fever, toxicity, and progressive or intermittent severe upper airway obstruction that is unresponsive to standard croup therapy

26

This dz starts similar to viral croup, but patients develop higher fever, toxicity, and progressive or intermittent severe upper airway obstruction that is unresponsive to standard croup therapy.

bacterial tracheitis

27

Pediatric airways are _____ and the cross sectional area is _____.

smaller; lower

28

How are infant chest walls different than that of an adult?

  • Weak intercostal muscles
  • Ribs are horizontal-->infants rely mostly on their diaphragm
  • Diaphragm is flat limiting the change in tidal volume and fatigues easily

29

Intrathoracic airway obstruction usually causes _____.

expiratory wheezing

30

Name 3 congenital disorders of intrathoracic airway obstruction.

  1. Tracheomalacia and bronchomalacia
  2. Tracheoesophageal fistula
  3. Vascular Rings, Pulmonary slings, and other vascular anomalies that can cause airway compression

31

What is the most common acquired cause of intrathoracic airway obstruction?

infection

32

What is bronchiolitis?

  • acute onset tachypnea, labored breathing, and/or hypoxia
  • Irritability, poor feeding
  • Wheezing and crackles

33

Dx?

  • acute onset tachypnea, labored breathing, and/or hypoxia
  • Irritability, poor feeding
  • Wheezing and crackles

bronhiolitis

34

_____ is the most common serious acute respiratory illness in infants and young children.

Bronchiolitis

35

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is by far the most common viral cause of _____.

acute bronchiolitis

36

_____ is by far the most common viral cause of acute bronchiolitis.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

37

Pts with bronchiolitis can potentially develop ____.

asthma

38

Dx:

  • Recurrent symptoms of airway obstruction (cough, SOB, chest tightness)
  • At least partial reversal of bronchospasm and symptom relief with a bronchodilator (e.g. a beta agonist such as albuterol)
  • All other diagnoses ruled out

asthma

39

What is the chronic tx of choice in asthma?

corticosteroids

40

What is parenchymal lung disease in children?

any disorders that affect the alveoli, associated structures, and the airways

41

What is the most common acquired cause of parenchymal lung disease in children?

Viral or bacterial pneumonia

42

What is bronchopulmonary dysplasia?

  • Acute respiratory distress in the first week of life
  • Required oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation, with persistent oxygen requirement at 36 weeks gestational age or 28 days of life
  • Persistent respiratory abnormalities, including physical signs and radiographic findings

43

Dx?

  • Acute respiratory distress in the first week of life
  • Required oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation, with persistent oxygen requirement at 36 weeks gestational age or 28 days of life
  • Persistent respiratory abnormalities, including physical signs and radiographic findings

bronchopulmonary dysplasia

44

______ is a developmental disorder characterized by decreased surface area for gas exchange, reduced inflammation, and dysmorphic vascular structure.

bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD)

45

The cause of _____ is a defect in a single gene on chromosome 7 that encodes an epithelial chloride channel.

CF

46

The cause of CF is a defect in a single gene on chromosome ___ that encodes an epithelial chloride channel.

7

47

The cause of CF is a defect in a single gene on chromosome 7 that encodes an epithelial _____ channel.

chloride

48

The most common CF mutation is ______.

ΔF508

49

What is meconium ileus? What disease is it assoc. with?

a severe intestinal obstruction resulting from inspissation of tenacious meconium in the terminal ileum; CF

50

What is the dominant lung pathogen in CF patients?

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

51

CF pts should also take daily multivitamins that contain vitamins ______.

A, D, E, and K