Pediatric pulmonary disease accounts for almost 50% of deaths in children younger than _____.
______ accounts for almost 50% of deaths in children younger than 1 year.
Pediatric pulmonary disease
An infant’s larynx and trachea are significantly _____ than an adult.
The narrowest part of the pediatric airway is ______.
just below the vocal cords at the level of the cricoid cartilage
The narrowest part of the adult airway is _____.
the vocal cords
Extrathoracic airway obstruction usually causes _____.
stridor or a barking cough
What are the 4 D's of airway obstruction?
What is Laryngomalacia?
a benign congenital disorder in which the cartilaginous support for the supraglottic structures is underdeveloped
When does Laryngomalacia present?
within the first few months of life
This is a benign congenital disorder in which the cartilaginous support for the supraglottic structures is underdeveloped.
This is the most common cause of persistent stridor in infants and usually is seen in the first 6 weeks of life.
What are the s/s of croup?
upper respiratory tract symptoms is followed by a barking cough and stridor but no (or only low grade) fever
How do xrays look in croup?
subglottic narrowing-steeple sign
What is the steeple sign on xray indicative of?
What is the tx for croup w/o stridor at rest?
supportive care, maybe inhaled mist
What is the tx for croup w/ stridor at rest?
- Nebulized epinephrine
What usually causes epiglottis?
Haemophilus influenzae type B
Why is epiglottitis a medical emergency?
it can rapidly lead to life-threatening upper airway obstruction
What are the s/s of epiglottis?
- sudden onset of high fever
- muffled voice
- inspiratory retractions
- soft stridor
- often sit in the sniffing dog position
How is epiglottitis definitively diagnosed?
visualization of the airway
What is the first step in treating epiglottitis?
What is bacterial tracheitis?
a severe, life-threatening form of laryngotracheo-bronchitis
This is a severe, life-threatening form of laryngotracheo-bronchitis.
What is the most common cause of bacterial tracheitis?
What are the s/s of bacterial tracheitis?
starts similar to viral croup, but patients develop higher fever, toxicity, and progressive or intermittent severe upper airway obstruction that is unresponsive to standard croup therapy
This dz starts similar to viral croup, but patients develop higher fever, toxicity, and progressive or intermittent severe upper airway obstruction that is unresponsive to standard croup therapy.
Pediatric airways are _____ and the cross sectional area is _____.
How are infant chest walls different than that of an adult?
- Weak intercostal muscles
- Ribs are horizontal-->infants rely mostly on their diaphragm
- Diaphragm is flat limiting the change in tidal volume and fatigues easily
Intrathoracic airway obstruction usually causes _____.
Name 3 congenital disorders of intrathoracic airway obstruction.