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CVPR Pulmonary (Exam 3) > Ventilation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ventilation Deck (27):
1

LO 1. Describe the difference between minute ventilation and alveolar ventilation

minute = the volume of air that flows into or out of the lung in one minute alveolar = the volume of air that flows into or out of the alveolar space in one minute

2

LO 2. Describe factors that influence lung ventilation, including the role of gravity.

bronchodilators and constrictors exercise (increased ventilation) altitude (increased ventilation) obstructive or restrictive diseases (increased airway resistance or altered lung compliance) gravity (weight of the lung creates a stronger pull from the chest wall at the apex)

3

LO 3. Describe the work of breathing and its influence on breathing rate and tidal volume.

The work done in moving the lungs has two major components: (a) work done against the elastic recoil of the lungs and (b) work done against airway resistance. An increase in the work of breathing can occur because of an increase in elastic recoil (decreased compliance) of the respiratory system, because of an increase in airway resistance, or a combination of the two.

4

LO 4. Define anatomical, alveolar, and physiologic dead-space.

anatomical = air that doesn't reach the alveoli alveolar = alveoli that are well-ventilated but do not participate in gas exchange (imperfused areas of the lung) physiologic = the sum of the anatomic and alveolar dead spaces

5

LO 5. Describe different lung volumes and how they are used to diagnose respiratory disorders.

residual volume (RV) = volume of air remaining in the lungs after maximal expiration; usu 1.5 L functional residual capacity (FRC) = volume of gas in the lung and upper airway at the end of a normal expiration, usu 2.5L total lung capacity (TLC)= the volume of air inside the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration, usu 7.5L tidal volume (VT) = the difference in lung volume between a normal inspiration and normal expiration, usu 500mL vital capacity (VC)= volume of air exhaled after a maximal inspiration followed by a maximal expiration

6

This is a disease caused by the infiltration of connective tissue, which decreases lung compliance, making inspiration difficult.

pulmonary fibrosis

7

______ diseases such as chronic bronchitis and asthma are associated with increases in airway resistance.

Obstructive

8

Obstructive diseases such as chronic bronchitis and asthma are associated with _______.

increases in airway resistance

9

Obstructive diseases such as ______ and _______ are associated with increases in airway resistance.

chronic bronchitis; asthma

10

______ diseases do not impact airway resistance; also, the decrease in lung compliance can actually cause small increases in the FEV1.0/FVC ratio.

Restrictive

11

Restrictive diseases do not impact airway resistance; also, the decrease in lung compliance can actually cause _______.

small increases in the FEV1.0/FVC ratio

12

Unlike the other obstructive diseases, emphysema can be associated with unchanged or small increases (not decreases) in _______.

vital capacity

13

Unlike the other obstructive diseases, _______ can be associated with unchanged or small increases (not decreases) in vital capacity.

emphysema

14

What is alveolar ventilation?

the volume of air that flows into or out of the alveolar space in one minute

15

This is the volume of air that flows into or out of the alveolar space in one minute.

alveolar ventilation

16

What is minute ventilation?

the volume of air that flows into or out of the lung in one minute

17

What is the sum of the anatomic and alveolar dead spaces called?

physiologic dead space

18

What is residual volume (RV)? What is its normal value?

volume of air remaining in the lungs after maximal expiration; usu 1.5 L

19

This is the volume of air remaining in the lungs after maximal expiration; usu 1.5 L.

residual volume (RV)

20

This is the volume of air exhaled after a maximal inspiration followed by a maximal expiration.

vital capacity (VC)

21

What is vital capacity (VC)?

the volume of air exhaled after a maximal inspiration followed by a maximal expiration

22

This is the volume of gas in the lung and upper airway at the end of a normal expiration, usu 2.5L.

functional residual capacity (FRC)

23

This is the volume of air inside the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration, usu 7.5L.

total lung capacity (TLC)

24

This is the difference in lung volume between a normal inspiration and normal expiration, usu 500mL.

tidal volume (VT)

25

What is functional residual capacity (FRC)? What is its normal value?

the volume of gas in the lung and upper airway at the end of a normal expiration, usu 2.5L.

26

What is tidal volume (VT)? What is its normal value?

the difference in lung volume between a normal inspiration and normal expiration, usu 500mL

27

What is total lung capacity (TLC)? What is its normal value?

the volume of air inside the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration, usu 7.5L