Zone 1 has no blood flow because _______, collapsing pulmonary capillaries and obstructing blood flow.
alveolar pressure exceeds arteriolar pressure
The most common causes of _____ are sepsis, pancreatitis, trauma, aspiration, and transfusion.
In lung zone 1, the P___>P____>P____.
What is FIO2?
the fraction of inspired oxygen between 21% (room air) and 100% (pure oxygen)
The two determinants of oxygenation are _____ and ____.
FIO2 and PEEP
Zone 2 perfuses in an _____, _____ fashion, at times in the cardiac and respiratory cycle when the arterial and venous pressures exceed alveolar pressures.
Zone 3 is ideally perfused lung, where _____, and blood flow remains consistent.
vascular pressures exceed alveolar pressures
______ is marked by intense alveolar inflammation with increased pulmonary capillary permeability.
In lung zone 3, the P___>P____>P____.
The most common causes of ARDS are?
What are the only 2 treatments for ARDS that are known to improve outcomes?
- low tidal volume ventilation
- prone positioning
There are two basic types of respiratory failure: ____ and ____.
hypoxemic and hypercapneic
In lung zone 2, the P___>P____>P____.
The two determinants of ventilation are _____ and ____.
respiratory rate and tidal volume
What are the 4 parameters of mechanical ventilation we need to know?
- Respiratory rate
- Tidal volume
What is PEEP?
Positive end-expiratory pressure
ARDS is marked by intense _____ with increased _____.
alveolar inflammation; pulmonary capillary permeability