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Flashcards in Pulmonary Function Tests Deck (75)
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1

Increased lung volumes are associated with _____ diseases such as _____.

obstructive; asthma and emphysema

2

Loss of muscle function can occur due to _____ or because of ______.

neuropathies; myopathies

3

A reduced FEV1 = ?

obstructive disease

3

In a flow volume loop, variable intra-thoracic obstruction will have a _________ curve.

compressed airway during expiration with a normal inspiratory loop

3

Restriction can only be diagnosed by ______.

lung volumes

4

How is gas transfer measured?

DLCO test

5

What is IRV?

Inspiratory reserve volume; the volume of gas that can be inhaled above what would normally be inhaled during a tidal breath requiring maximum effort of the respiratory muscles

6

Diseases that decrease blood in the lung (anemia, pulmonary vascular disease) will ____ CO transfer and result in a ______.

decrease; low diffusing capacity

7

What causes variable extra-thoracic obstruction?

  • vocal cord paralysis
  • laryngeal edema
  • vocal cord dysfunction
  • upper airway tumor

7

Examples of neurologic diseases which can reduce respiratory muscle strength (aside from trauma) include: 1) diseases of the motor-neuron endplate (such as myasthenia gravis, botulism, anti-cholinergic poisoning, tick paralysis), 2) diseases of the neuronal axon (Guillan-Barre, critical care neuropathy), or 3) diseases of the nerve root in the anterior horn of the spinal cord (such as ____).

polio, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

8

The amount of gas volume moved during a normal inspiration is the _____.

tidal volume (TV)

8

What is Body Plethysmography?

a pulm function test where pt sits inside a pressurized box and very small changes in volume and pressure can be measured

9

What is TV?

tidal volume; the amount of gas volume moved during a normal inspiration

10

In a flow volume loop, the fixed obstruction curve will be ______.

flattened in both inspiration and expiration

11

This is the maximum intra-thoracic pressure is measured when the patient attempts to inspire as forcefully as possible against an occluded airway (Mueller maneuver) while at residual volume.

Pi max

12

In a flow volume loop, the airflow is decreased in obstruction with ______ of the expiratory flow loop, a hallmark sign of obstructive lung disease.

coving

12

What is DLCO?

diffusion capacity of the lung using a small amount of CO

13

What 2 tests assess lung muscle function?

1. Pi max 2. Pe max

14

______ lung volumes are associated with obstructive diseases such as asthma and emphysema.

Increased

14

What is Pi max?

The maximum intra-thoracic pressure is measured when the patient attempts to inspire as forcefully as possible against an occluded airway (Mueller maneuver) while at residual volume

14

Pulmonary fibrosis, a restrictive disease, is characterized by stiff lungs and a _____ pressure-volume (P-V) curve.

flat

16

This is the volume of gas in the lung even after maximal exhalation- cannot be measured with spirometry.

Residual volume (RV)

17

What diseases or conditions can increase DLCO?

  • Polycythemia
  • early CHF
  • asthma
  • alveolar hemorrhage

17

Muscle abnormalities can occur due to _____ (steroid myopathy), _______ (polymyositis, dermatomyositis), or ______ (Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome), among others.

  • drugs
  • collagen vascular diseases
  • paraneoplastic syndromes

17

Examples of neurologic diseases which can reduce respiratory muscle strength (aside from trauma) include: 1) diseases of the motor-neuron endplate (such as myasthenia gravis, botulism, anti-cholinergic poisoning, tick paralysis), 2) diseases of the neuronal axon (such as ______), or 3) diseases of the nerve root in the anterior horn of the spinal cord (polio, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis).

Guillan-Barre, critical care neuropathy

18

Examples of ______ which can reduce respiratory muscle strength (aside from trauma) include: 1) diseases of the motor-neuron endplate (myasthenia gravis, botulism, anti-cholinergic poisoning, tick paralysis), 2) diseases of the neuronal axon (Guillan-Barre, critical care neuropathy), or 3) diseases of the nerve root in the anterior horn of the spinal cord (polio, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis).

neurologic diseases

19

Decreased lung volumes are diagnostic of _____.

restrictive processes

20

In a flow volume loop, the airflow is decreased with coving of the expiratory flow loop, a hallmark sign of ______ lung disease.

obstructive

22

What is FRC?

Functional residual capacity; RV + ERV; amount of gas left in the lung after normal expiration; the point at which the respiratory system is in equilibrium

24

This is the volume of gas that can be inhaled above what would normally be inhaled during a tidal breath requiring maximum effort of the respiratory muscles.

Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)