Normal breath sounds are called _____, meaning soft and low pitched.
What is another name for crackles?
Stridor represents pathology in _____.
the upper airway
What causes resonance to percussion?
increased air in the lung
______ and _______ breath sounds are abnormal when heard over the peripheral lung tissue.
What causes the trachea to be pulled towards one side?
- volume loss due to focal scarring/fibrosis
Normal breath sounds are called vesicular, meaning _______.
soft and low pitched
These are the palpable vibrations transmitted through the bronchopulmonary tree to the chest wall when the patient speaks.
These breath sounds are high pitched and ordinarily heard over the trachea.
Breath sounds that are soft and low pitched (vesicular) are ______.
What can cause decreased fremitus?
- excess air in the lungs (emphysema, pneumothorax)
- fluid in the pleural space (pleural effusion)
- atelectasis due to an obstructed bronchus
Bronchovesicular and bronchial breath sounds heard in the peripheral lung suggest _______.
the replacement of air-filled lung with solid tissue or fluid
______ typically occurs due to laryngeal pathology such as laryngospasm or laryngeal edema, subglottic stenosis, or vocal cord dysfunction.
______ typically represents central airway obstruction within the thorax, such as a tumor obstructing the trachea.
What is Fremitus?
the palpable vibrations transmitted through the bronchopulmonary tree to the chest wall when the patient speaks
Bronchovesicular and bronchial breath sounds are abnormal when ______.
heard over the peripheral lung tissue
What causes the trachea to be pushed away from one side?
- large pleural effusion
- tension pneumothorax
How do you test for egophany?
have the pt say EEEE but listen for it to change to AAAA while auscultating
What causes crackles/rales?
disruptive airflow through the small airways; discontinuous and usu with inspiration
What are bronchial breath sounds?
high pitched and ordinarily heard over the trachea
What are rhonchi?
rumbling (or snoring) sounds that are more continuous
Bronchovesicular and bronchial breath sounds are ______ when heard over the peripheral lung tissue.
Expiratory stridor typically represents ______ within the thorax, such as ______.
central airway obstruction; a tumor obstructing the trachea
What are musical sounds typically audible without a stethoscope and can be either inspiratory or expiratory?
This breath sound is moderate in pitch and intensity, heard during inspiration, over the major bronchi.
Dullness to percussion can indicate what problems?
- large pleural effusions
- lobar pneumonia
- areas of atelectasis
What is stridor?
musical sounds typically audible without a stethoscope and can be either inspiratory or expiratory
Post-operative atelectasis usually presents as ______.
bronchovesicular and bronchial breath sounds over the lower lobes
What causes dullness to percussion?
when fluid or solid tissue replaces air-containing lung or occupies the pleural space beneath your percussing fingers
What causes egophany?
areas of compressed or fluid filled areas of the lung
What are bronchovesicular breath sounds?
moderate in pitch and intensity, heard during inspiration, over the major bronchi
Stridor = ?
Pneumonia will have _____ breath sounds.
bronchial breath sounds with dullness, egophony, and crackles
What sounds is made by air passing through an airway partially obstructed by mucous or secretions?
What is atelectasis?
What diseases are associated with crackles/rales?
- pulmonary edema
- interstitial lung disease
What causes rhonchi?
passage of air through an airway partially obstructed by mucous or secretions
What can cause increased fremitus?
consolidation in the lung
What disease is associated with egophany?
What is another name for rales?
An obstructing lesion in the bronchus would have ______ breath sounds.
dullness and absent
Inspiratory stridor typically occurs due to laryngeal pathology such as _____, _____, _____, or ______.
laryngospasm, laryngeal edema, subglottic stenosis, or vocal cord dysfunction