Surface Tension/Airway Resistance Flashcards Preview

CVPR Pulmonary (Exam 3) > Surface Tension/Airway Resistance > Flashcards

Flashcards in Surface Tension/Airway Resistance Deck (24):
1

Stimulation of adrenergic receptors by endogenous ______ and ______ causes bronchodilation via activation of β2 receptors, as do drugs such as isoproterenol.

epinephrine; norepinephrine

2

An important factor in determining compliance is _____.

surface tension

2

Where does surfactant come from?

type II alveolar surface epi cells

2

The major site of airway resistance is found at the ______.

intermediate-sized bronchi

3

Stimulation of adrenergic receptors by endogenous epinephrine and norepinephrine causes bronchodilation via activation of β2 receptors, as do drugs such as ______.

isoproterenol

3

How do emphysemics combat airway collapse?

they expire while pursing their lips to maintain a larger air pressure in the airways (PAW) to keep the airway open

4

What are the problems created by surface tension in alveoli?

  1. Reduced lung compliance
  2. Fluid accumulation in alveoli
  3. Collapse of small alveoli

5

Surfactant's efficacy increases in _____.

smaller alveoli

7

The surface tension of water is tamed by _____.

pulmonary surfactant

8

What are the factors that control airway resistance?

  1. lung volume
  2. bronchial smooth muscle tone
  3. dynamic airway collapse

8

Vagal stimulation induces ______ via release of acetylcholine.

bronchoconstriction

8

Stimulation of ______ by endogenous epinephrine and norepinephrine causes bronchodilation via activation of β2 receptors, as do drugs such as isoproterenol.

adrenergic receptors

10

What is pulmonary surfactant made of?

a mixture of lipids and proteins

11

Respiratory distress syndrome (in infants) is characterized by _____.

a surfactant deficiency

12

_______ is characterized by a surfactant deficiency.

Respiratory distress syndrome (in infants)

14

Why do emphysemics have airway collapse?

1. reduced lung recoil 2. expiratory muscle use 3. loss of supporting CT in the airway

16

In addition to acetylcholine, ______ contracts in response to histamine, several products of arachidonic acid metabolism (e.g., thromboxane A2, leukotrienes C4 and D4), and a low carbon dioxide partial pressure PCO2 in the airways.

bronchial smooth muscle

17

Vagal stimulation induces bronchoconstriction via release of _______.

acetylcholine

18

Surface tension is a property of the water that lines the inner surfaces of _____.

alveoli

19

Bronchial smooth muscle is innervated by _____.

the vagus nerve

20

In addition to acetylcholine, bronchial smooth muscle contracts in response to?

  • histamine
  • several products of arachidonic acid metabolism (e.g., thromboxane A2, leukotrienes C4 and D4)
  • a low carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) in the airways

21

What does surfactant do?

  • increase lung compliance
  • prevent collapse of small alveoli
  • prevent the accumulation of fluid inside the alveoli

23

For a 2-fold reduction in radius, R increases ______.

16-fold

24

Stimulation of adrenergic receptors by endogenous epinephrine and norepinephrine causes _______ via activation of ______, as do drugs such as isoproterenol.

bronchodilation; β2 receptors