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Flashcards in Pathoma- COPD Deck (100)
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1

DX? chronic, productive cough lasting at least 3 months over a minimum of 2 years highly assoc with smoking

chronic bronchitis

2

What does the submucosa contain?

serous glands (produce serous fluid) and mucinous glands (to produce mucous)

2

What are chronic bronchitis pts at risk for?

Increased infections and cor pulmonale

2

What is panacinar emphysema? Where is it most severe?

emphysema across the whole acinus, usu associated with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. most severe in the lower lobes

2

What is the pathogenesis of asthma?

genetically-susceptible pt is exposed to an allergen that induces TH2 phenotype in CD4+ cells

3

What syndrome is a defect of the dynein arm of all cilia, causing sinusitis, infertilitiy, situs inversus, and lung infections?

Kartagener Syndrome

5

What will the spirometry findings be in obstructive diseases?

  • decreased FVC
  • very decreased FEV1
  • decreased FEV1:FVC ratio
  • increased TLC (air trapping)

5

Histamine-induced vasodilation occurs at?

the arterioles

6

What is a normal TLC?

7L

6

What is under the lamina propria?

the submucosa

6

  • DX?
  • dyspnea cough w/ minimal sputum
  • prolonged expriration, breathing thru pursed lips
  • weight loss
  • increased AP diameter of chest (barrel chested)

emphysema

7

How do bronchioles stay open without cartilage?

they have elastic recoil

7

_____ are a byproduct of inflammation; ______ proteins protect against this.

Proteases; antiproteases

8

What is below the submucosa?

cartilage

8

Nasal polyps are associated with?

1. chronic rhinitis 2. aspirin intolerant asthma 3. cystic fibrosis

9

What is the normal A1AT allele? What is the mutated allle?

PiM; PiZ

10

What cell protects the bottom of the lung?

the alveolar mac

10

What are the clinical features of bronchiectasis?

  • SOB
  • cough with foul-smelling sputum
  • complications: hypoxemia, cor pulmonale, 2a amyloidosis

11

What are the features of chronic bronchitis?

chronic, productive cough lasting at least 3 months over a minimum of 2 years highly assoc with smoking increased thickness of mucus glands Reid index >50% cyanosis

11

What does IL5 do?

attracts eosinphils

12

What is an acinus?

the functional unit of the lung

13

What is the obstruction in emphysema?

collapsed bronchioles that have lost their elastic recoil

15

What is a normal FEV1?

4L

16

PAO2 creates a pressure that _____, which is then denoted PaO2.

pushes O2 into the BVs

16

What are 2 late complications of emphysema?

1. hypoxemia 2. cor pulmonale

17

What is allergic bronchopulmnary aspergilliosis?

a hypersensitivity rxn to aspergillis in asthmatics and CF pts

18

What causes the obstruction in chronic bronchitis?

mucous

20

What is a normal FEV1:FVC ratio?

80%

20

What are the features of chronic bronchitis?

  • chronic, productive cough lasting at least 3 months over a minimum of 2 years
  • highly assoc with smoking

20

What is the obstruction in bronchiectasis?

enlarged airways- can't force the air out