Pathoma: Restrictive Diseases Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pathoma: Restrictive Diseases Deck (55)
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1

What is pneumoconiosis?

interstitial fibrosis due to chronic exposure to small, fibrogenic particles

1

Why do sarcoid pts have hypercalcemia?

the granulomas have 1-alpha-hydroxylase activity, which can activate vitamin D

2

What other tissues, besides the lungs, are commonly affected by sarcoidosis?

  • uvea (Uveitis)
  • skin (cutaneous nodules or erythema nodosum)
  • salivary and lacrimal glands
  • any other tissue

2

What is hypersensitivity pneumonitis?

a granulomatous reaction to inhaled organic antigens, esp from birds

3

Where do sarcoid granulomas occur in the lung?

in the hilar lymph nodes and throughout the lung tissue

3

What cells are assoc. with a granulomatous reaction?

eosinophils

4

What happens in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis?

fibrosis of the lung interstitium

5

Pts exposed to asbestos are much more likely to get ____ than _____.

lung CA; mesothelioma

6

This is a systemic disease characterized by noncaseating granulomas in multiple organs.

sarcoidosis

6

What are the s/s of hypersensitivity pneumonitis?

  1. hours after exposure: fever, cough, dyspnea
  2. chronic: interstitial fibrosis

7

What workers are at risk of silicosis pneumoconiosis?

sandblasters and silica miners

8

Granulomas in the lung cause _____.

restrictive lung dz

8

What does non-caseating mean?

all the cells are alive; no necrosis

8

In sarcoid patients, granulomas have 1-alpha-hydroxylase activity, which can activate vitamin D. What does this cause?

hypercalcemia

9

What doe TGF-beta do?

induces a healing response and fibrosis

10

What are the clinical features of sarcoidosis?

cough, SOB, elevated serum ACE, hypercalcemia

12

What lung function values will be indicative of restrictive lung disease?

  • decreased TLC
  • decreased FVC
  • decreased FEV1
  • increased FEV1:FVC ratio (>80%)

13

This is a giant cell in sarcoidosis with an internal star-like pattern.

an asteroid body

13

Restrictive lung diseases cause _____ compliance.

decreased

14

What workers are at increased risk of asbestosis pneumoconiosis?

construction workers, plumbers, and shipyard workers

15

This is a granulomatous reaction to inhaled organic antigens, esp from birds.

hypersensitivity pneumonitis

16

Asbestosis pneumoconiosis pts are at increased risk of?

lung carcinoma and mesothelioma

16

What is an asbestos body?

a long, brown rod with iron depositions found in lung samples

17

What are the clinical features of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis?

  1. progressive dyspnea and cough
  2. fibrosis on lung CT beginning at the subpleura

18

Pts with silicosis pneumoconiosis are at increased risk of _____.

TB

19

What disease can sarcoidosis mimic?

Sjogren syndrome

20

Where is TB found in the lung?

in the upper lobes

22

What cytokine induces a healing response and fibrosis?

TGF-beta

22

What are the pathologic findings of berylliosis pneumoconiosis?

  • noncaseating granulomas in the lung
  • hilar lymph nodes
  • systemic organs

24

  1. DX?
  2. progressive dyspnea and cough
  3. fibrosis on lung CT beginning at the subpleura

idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis