Pathoma: Restrictive Diseases Flashcards Preview

CVPR Pulmonary (Exam 3) > Pathoma: Restrictive Diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathoma: Restrictive Diseases Deck (55):
1

What is pneumoconiosis?

interstitial fibrosis due to chronic exposure to small, fibrogenic particles

1

Why do sarcoid pts have hypercalcemia?

the granulomas have 1-alpha-hydroxylase activity, which can activate vitamin D

2

What other tissues, besides the lungs, are commonly affected by sarcoidosis?

  • uvea (Uveitis)
  • skin (cutaneous nodules or erythema nodosum)
  • salivary and lacrimal glands
  • any other tissue

2

What is hypersensitivity pneumonitis?

a granulomatous reaction to inhaled organic antigens, esp from birds

3

Where do sarcoid granulomas occur in the lung?

in the hilar lymph nodes and throughout the lung tissue

3

What cells are assoc. with a granulomatous reaction?

eosinophils

4

What happens in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis?

fibrosis of the lung interstitium

5

Pts exposed to asbestos are much more likely to get ____ than _____.

lung CA; mesothelioma

6

This is a systemic disease characterized by noncaseating granulomas in multiple organs.

sarcoidosis

6

What are the s/s of hypersensitivity pneumonitis?

  1. hours after exposure: fever, cough, dyspnea
  2. chronic: interstitial fibrosis

7

What workers are at risk of silicosis pneumoconiosis?

sandblasters and silica miners

8

Granulomas in the lung cause _____.

restrictive lung dz

8

What does non-caseating mean?

all the cells are alive; no necrosis

8

In sarcoid patients, granulomas have 1-alpha-hydroxylase activity, which can activate vitamin D. What does this cause?

hypercalcemia

9

What doe TGF-beta do?

induces a healing response and fibrosis

10

What are the clinical features of sarcoidosis?

cough, SOB, elevated serum ACE, hypercalcemia

12

What lung function values will be indicative of restrictive lung disease?

  • decreased TLC
  • decreased FVC
  • decreased FEV1
  • increased FEV1:FVC ratio (>80%)

13

This is a giant cell in sarcoidosis with an internal star-like pattern.

an asteroid body

13

Restrictive lung diseases cause _____ compliance.

decreased

14

What workers are at increased risk of asbestosis pneumoconiosis?

construction workers, plumbers, and shipyard workers

15

This is a granulomatous reaction to inhaled organic antigens, esp from birds.

hypersensitivity pneumonitis

16

Asbestosis pneumoconiosis pts are at increased risk of?

lung carcinoma and mesothelioma

16

What is an asbestos body?

a long, brown rod with iron depositions found in lung samples

17

What are the clinical features of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis?

  1. progressive dyspnea and cough
  2. fibrosis on lung CT beginning at the subpleura

18

Pts with silicosis pneumoconiosis are at increased risk of _____.

TB

19

What disease can sarcoidosis mimic?

Sjogren syndrome

20

Where is TB found in the lung?

in the upper lobes

22

What cytokine induces a healing response and fibrosis?

TGF-beta

22

What are the pathologic findings of berylliosis pneumoconiosis?

  • noncaseating granulomas in the lung
  • hilar lymph nodes
  • systemic organs

24

  1. DX?
  2. progressive dyspnea and cough
  3. fibrosis on lung CT beginning at the subpleura

idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

24

This is interstitial fibrosis due to chronic exposure to small, fibrogenic particles.

pneumoconiosis

25

What is the tx for sarcoidosis?

  1. steroids
  2. none- self limiting and resolves spontaneously

26

Fibrosis in pneumoconiosis is mediated by _____.

macs

27

This is a long, brown rod with iron depositions found in certain lung histology.

asbestos bodies

29

What is the cause of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis?

unknown (that's why it's idiopathic)

31

What is anthracosis?

carbon in the lung (black spots)- a little is normal

33

Silica in the macs _____.

impair the phagolysosome formation

34

What are the occupations most at risk for berylliosis pneumoconiosis?

miners, aerospace workers

36

What disease is often associated with coal workers' pneumoconiosis?

RA

37

What are the pathologic findings of silicosis pneumoconiosis?

fibrotic nodules in the upper lobes

37

What is an asteroid body?

a giant cell in sarcoidosis with an internal star-like pattern

39

What are the interstitial diseases of the lung?

  1. idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
  2. pneumoconiosis
  3. sarcoidosis
  4. hypersensitivity pneumonitis

41

Pts with berylliosis pneumoconiosis are at increased risk for?

lung CA

42

What causes pneumoconiosis?

occupational exposure

44

Name 2 drugs that can induce interstitial fibrosis.

  1. bleomycin
  2. amiodarone

46

What is sarcoidosis?

a systemic disease characterized by noncaseating granulomas in multiple organs

47

Which pneumoconiosis is similar to sarcoidosis?

Berylliosis

48

What is the defining cell of a granuloma?

an epitheliod hystiocyte

49

What pneumoconiosis increases your risk of TB?

pneumoconiosis

50

What is the interstitium?

the thin, delicate alveolar wall

51

What are the pathologic findings in asbestosis pneumoconiosis?

fibrosis of the lung and pleura in plaques- may have long, golden brown fibers containing iron, which are asbestos bodies (diagnostic)

52

What is the most common cause of restrictive lung disease?

interstitial fibrosis

53

What is the treatment for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis?

lung transplant

54

What are the pathologic findins in Coal Workers' pneumoconiosis?

diffuse anthracosis and fibrosis

55

Name 4 exposures that can cause pneumoconiosis.

  1. coal/carbon
  2. silica
  3. beryllium
  4. asbestos