Cardiac, Neuro, and Respiration for physiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cardiac, Neuro, and Respiration for physiology Deck (115):
1

What is the normal heart rhythm and what is it controlled by?

sinus rhythm and by the SA node

2

What's arrhythmia?

when the heart rate is too fast or too slow

3

What is the contractility of the myocardium determined by?

calcium ions with actin and myosin

4

What greatly impacts the contractilty of the myocardium?

the sympathetic NS

5

What is heart rate determined by?

the automatic system and the SA node

6

How is heart rate determined?

from the balance between the sympathetic and the parasympathetic ns

7

Which makes the heart rate faster?

sympathetic ns

8

Which makes the heart rate slower?

parasympathetic ns

9

What's an electrocardiogram?

graphic recording of electrical activity of the heart showing the directions impulses are traveling

10

In an ECG what does the P, QRS, and T mean?

atrial depolarization, ventricular depolarization, ventricular repolarization

11

What is heart rate?

frequency of cardiac cycle bpm

12

Do smaller or larger animals have higher rates and why?

smaller due to large surface area per unit of body mass

13

What is a cardiac auscultation?

listening to the heart

14

What does Lub do?

closes the AV valves

15

What does Dub do?

closes the semilunar valves

16

What is cardiac muscle fiber made up of?

striated, involuntary, branched with a single central nuclei and intercalculated discs

17

How do impulses travel in cardiac muscle fiber?

from cell to cell in intercalculated discs

18

Where is the SA node and what originates there?

the right atrium and impulses originate there

19

What is peripheral resistance?

blood flow that is limited by friction

20

How can blood flow through peripheral resistance?

blood pressure must be greater

21

The difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures is?

pulse pressure

22

What is blood pressure?

the force exerted by the blood against inner walls of blood vessels

23

Maintenance of normal blood pressure prevents what?

edema

24

What is the maximum pressure achieved during ventricular contraction?

systolic blood pressure

25

What are the functions of the cardiovascular system?

maintenance of normal blood pressure with the arteries, maintenance of blood flow to the tissues, maintenance of normal blood pressure within the capillaries and veins

26

What is the mode of travel of an impulse along a myelinated nerve?

saltatory conduction

27

Do impulses travel faster in myelinated fibers or nonmyelinated fibers?

myelinated fibers

28

In myelinated axons depolarization can only occur at?

nodes of ranvier

29

What are meninges?

connective tissue surrounding the brain and spinal cord

30

What is cerebrospinal fluid?

fluid between meninges and the brain and the spinal cord that cushions it

31

What is the blood brain barrier?

barrier separating the capillaries in the brain from the nervous tissue and acts as a protectant

32

What's the resting membrane potential?

electrical difference in charges across the cell membrane

33

When a cell is positive on the outside and negative on the inside this means?

it's polarized

34

A change in charge during depolarization?

action potential

35

During depolarization and repolarization neurons cannot respond to new stimuli this is called what?

refactory

36

In the sympathetic NS what is released?

catecholamines

37

In the parasympathetic NS do GI, intestinal, and muscle secretions increase or decrease?

increase

38

Impulses that go toward the CNS and are sensory

afferent

39

Impulses away from CNS and are motor

efferent

40

What provides structural and functional support and protection for the NS?

glial cells

41

What is a sensory receptor that receives impulses?

dendrite

42

What conducts impulses away?

axon

43

What volume of air is inspired and expired during 1 breath?

tidal volume

44

What volume is inspired and expired during 1 minute?

minute volume

45

What volume is air left in the lungs after maximum expiration?

residual volume

46

Inhalation that uses the diaphragm and external intercoastal muscles?

inspiration

47

Exhalation that uses the internalcoastal muscles and abdominal muscles

expiration

48

What is respiration?

the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide

49

The internal respiration is

blood cells of the body

50

The external respiration is

air and blood in the lungs

51

The primary functions of respiration are

internal and external respiration

52

The secondary functions of respiration

phonation, body temperature, acid-base, and olfaction

53

What does respiration require?

effective air movement into and out of the lungs and appropriate rate and volume for O2 at any time

54

What is negative intrathoracic pressure?

pressure within the thoracic is negative with respect to the atmospheric pressure

55

How does negative inthrathoracic pressure work?

this partial vacuum pulls the lungs tightly against the thoracic wall

56

What is a lubricant for intrathoracic pressure?

pleural fluid

57

In pulmonary circulation what divides the lungs into right and left arteries?

pulmonary artery

58

From the right and left arteries what do the blood vessels do?

they subdivide to coinicide with the bronchial tree

59

At the capillary level there is a network of capillaries around the alveoli where what takes place?

the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide take place

60

Oxygenated blood enters what which lead to larger veins? which leads to which atrium?

pulmonary venules and the left atrium

61

pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood to the left atrium through?

left av vale (mitral)

62

After going through the mitral valve where does the blood go? which respiration is this for?

out through the aorta and through systemic circulation for internal respiration

63

Something going from areas of high concentration to low concentration is?

simple diffusion

64

Air in the alveoli of the lungs are only 2 thin epithelial layers away from what?

from blood in the capillaries around the aveolar sacs

65

Because oxygen levels in the alveoli are high...

oxygen simply diffuses across the alveolar and capillary walls into the blood where the oxygen concentration is low (opposite can happen)

66

Breathing is controlled by what? where is it located?

the respiratory center and it's the area in the medulla obolongata of the brainstem

67

Is breathing voluntary or involuntary?

involuntary

68

What are the two systems of breathing?

mechanical and chemical

69

Mechanical breathing is?

stretch receptors in the lung, it maintains normal, rhythmic and resting breathing patterns

70

Chemical breathing is?

receptors in the carotid arteries, aorta (carotid and aortic bodies) and in the brainstem

71

With any imbalance of respiration what happens?

chemical control system signals respiratory center to adjust breathing

72

Increases of CO2 are linked with decreases in?

pH

73

A slight lowering of the O2 in the blood can result in?

hypoxia

74

If O2 levels drop too low what happens?

the rc neurons become depressed and can't send impulses which can lead to stopped or decreased breathing

75

Phonation is?

2 connective tissue bands that stretch across the lumen of the larynx that vibrate as air passes over them producing sound

76

What is body temperature?

blood vessels under epithelium in nasal cavity warm inhaled air

77

Explain how panting works

panting cools blood via increased evaporation of fluid from nasal passages and mouth

78

What is acid-base balance?

it alters CO2 and pH of blood

79

What are the functions of the nervous system?

sensory, integration, and motor

80

How is the nervous system organized?

anatomical location, direction of impulses, and function

81

What are sympathetic decreases?

decreases secreations

82

What is an example of an excitatory transmitter?

dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine

83

What are the parasympathetic increases?

intestinal muscle and secretions

84

What is an example of inhibitory transmitters?

glycine and GABA

85

A stimulus strong enough to cause threshold to be reached increases the what?

permeability of a neuron cell membrane to sodium ions

86

Sodium channels open and influx of sodium causes adjacent sodium channels to open is

wave of depolarization

87

The conduction of the action potential is

a nerve impulse

88

All-or-none principle

When threshold is reached the action potential is conducted along the entire neuron and depolarizes with maximum strength or it doesn't at all

89

Nerve impulses are transmitted from neurons to target tissues or to other neurons via

synapses

90

A neurotransmitter is?

the chemical released during synaptic transmission

91

The receptor of the neurotransmitter is the

postsynaptic neuron

92

The neurotransmitter binds with a specific protein..

receptors on postsynaptic membrane triggering a change in the postsynaptic cell

93

What make up the brain?

cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon, brainstem

94

What part of the brain is responsible for conscious thought and interpretation of sensory information?

cerebrum

95

What does the cerebellum control?

movement and balance

96

What is the diencephalon?

the passageway between the brain stem and the cerebrum

97

The thalamus, hypothalamus, and pituitary gland are components of?

the diencephalon

98

The brainstem is what?

the connection between the brain and spinal cord

99

The medulla, the pons, and the midbrain are components of

the brainstem

100

Describe how a reflex arc works

Stimulation of sensory receptor>motor neuron in the CNS send an impulse to target organ>response

101

What are used to aid in the diagnosis of spinal cord trauma, peripheral nerve damage or muscle disease?

stretch(patellar) reflex, withdrawl(flexor) reflex, cross(extensor) reflex

102

Which circulatory system is a high pressure system?

systemic arterial circulation

103

What is required to perfuse tissues with a high resistance to blood flow? what is an example of a tissue?

hydrostatic pressure, heart, kidney

104

What does the pulmonary arterial/venous and systemic venous circulation have in common?

low pressure, low resistance to blood flow, high pressure can cause fluid to leak which accumulates to form edema

105

When is the heart relaxed, filling with blood, and blood pressure falling?

during diastole

106

When is the heart having atrial/ventricular contractions, ejecting blood into systemic/pulmonary circulations, and blood pressure rising?

during systole

107

During systole/diastole blood in the right/left ventricle is pumped into the lungs through the semilunar valve called the aortic/pulmonic valve.

systole, right, pulmonic

108

When ventricles contract and blood is ejected into large arteries..

arterial walls stretch/recoil as pressure increases and decreases>felt as a pulse

109

In the sympathetic NS during peripheral resistance what happens?

vasoconstriction of arterioles>increase in blood pressure and resistance

110

At rest which system is dominant and blood goes where?

parasympathetic is dominant>blood flow is directed towards digestive and other organs

111

Why are electrical impulses conducted across specific pathways?

so specific parts of the heart activated at the right time

112

Sequence of electrical impulses (step 1)

SA node depolarizes>wave of depolarization>Atrioventricular node(AV)

113

Sequence of electrical impulses (step 2)

impulses travel slowly so atrias fill up before impulse conduction across the atrial myocardium>stimulates atrial contraction/empties blood into ventricles

114

Sequence of electrical impulses (step 3)

impulses go through AV node to the bundle of the interventricular(IV) septum>travel in right and left bundle branches to ventricular apex/purkinje fibers>ventricular contraction

115

Negative intrathoracic pressure aids in what?

returning blood to the heart