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Flashcards in cardiovascular anatomy Deck (85)
1

pulmonary circulation pressure

12 – 16 mmHg

2

corners of the heart

3rd R CC
6 R CC
2nd L CC
Left 5 interspace mid clavicular line

3

Lateral supraclavicular nerve

supplies skin over shoulder, which is the C4 dermatome

C3 , 4

4

what does the right coronary artery supply

walls of RA and RV
SAN and AVN nodes
post part of interventricular septum
part of LA and LV
His

5

what is an inferior infarct

obstruction of right coronary artery

6

what does the LCA supply

walls of LV and LA
most of interventricular septum

7

what is an anterior infarct

obstruction of LAD

8

what artery is most commonly affected by atherosclerosis

LAD

9

what is a lateral infarct

obstruction of the circumflex

10

what vessels may be used in a CABG

great saphenous vein
LIMA
left internal throracic

11

where will a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty first be inserted

femoral artery

12

what artery accompanies the great cardiac vein

LAD

13

what artery accompanies the middle cardiac vein

post interventricular

14

what artery accompanies the small cardiac vein

right marginal

15

which veins do not drain into the coronary sinus

venae cordis minimi

16

where does the descending aorta start and end

angle of Louis
to aortic hiatus T12, behind the crura and median arcuate ligament
lies on the left of the vertebral bodies then moves to the midline

17

what are the branches of the thoracic aorta

oesophageal arteries (middle third oesophagus)
9 posterior intercostals
subcostal arteries(supply posterior abdo wall)
bronchial arteries
other small arteries

18

where does the middle oesophagus drain to

azygous vein

19

where do the internal thoracic arteries branch from

subclavian arteries

20

what branches from the internal thoracic

anterior intercostals

21

where is the oesophagus

starts at c6
25 cm long
immediately anterior to the vertebral column
pierces the diaphragm at t10

22

what is the function of the cricopharyngeal sphincter

stops the swallowing of air into stomach

23

what supplies the superior part of oesophagus

inferior thyroid arteries
brachiocephalic veins
reccurent laryngeal nerves
deep cervical nodes

24

what supplies the middle oesophagus

oesophageal arteries
azygous system
oesophageal plexus
tracheobronchial nodes

25

what supplies the inferior third of oesophagus

left gastric artery
left gastric veins and then portal vein
oesophageal plexus
left gastric and coeliac nodes

26

how do oesophageal varices form

liver cirrhosis
increased portal pressure
blood enters submucosal veins via porto systemic anastomosis
enters azygous

27

what are the 4 oesophageal constrictions

upper oesophageal sphincter
arch of aorta
left main bronchus
diaphragm (lower oesophageal sphincter)

28

what is the thoracic duct a continuation of

cisterna chyli
lies between the aorta and the azygous vein

29

what is a chylothorax

a type of pleural effusion. It results from lymph formed in the digestive system called chyle accumulating in the pleural cavity due to either disruption or obstruction of the thoracic duct eg surgery

30

where does the thoracic duct enter the thorax

aortic hiatus t12 with the azygous vein

31

what does the azygous vein drain

posterior wall of the thorax and parts of the abdomen

32

what ribs does the breast overlay

2-6

contains 16 ducts

33

what structures pass through the thoracic inlet and lie on the first rib

subclavian vein
subclavian artery
inf trunk brachial plexus

34

what makes up the thoracic outlet

t12
ribs 11 and 12
costal cartilage 7-10
xiphoid cartilage

35

what are the 4 corners of the heart

3rd right CC
6th Right CC
2 L CC
5 left is mid clavicular line

36

where is the thymus

jugular notch to 4th CC

37

what is the blood supply of the thymus

internal thoracic and inferior thyroid arteries
venous to left brachiocephalic vein

38

what nerve lies to the right of the trachea

right vagus

39

what nerve lies to the right of SVC

phrenic

40

structures on the left of the mediastinum are related to what

arteries and the left ventricle

41

what nerve lies on the arch of the aorta

left vagus

42

what nerve lies on the left ventricle

left phrenic

43

describe the mediastinal planes

thymus
1 venous plane
vagus and phrenic
2arterial plane
3 trachea and oesophagus

44

where is the SVC origin found

behind 1st right costal cartilage

45

where does the azygos vein join the SVC

behind the 2nd right costal cartilage

46

where does the svc enter the right atrium

posterior to 3rd right cc

47

where does the brachiocephalic trunk divide

posterior to the right sternoclavicular joint

48

where does the left superior intercostal vein lie

lies on arch of the aorta between vagus and phrenic
passes into the left brachiocephalic vein

drains the 2, 3, 4 IC spaces

49

where is the trachea

c6 - t4/5

includes trachealis muscle

50

where is the left recurrent laryngeal nerve

between the trachea and oesophagus

51

where is the thoracic duct

in between the aorta and azygos vein

crosses behind the oesophagus and t4/5 to ascend on the left

then arches over the apex of the left lung and enters the junction of the left internal jugular and left subclavian vein at the left brachiocephalic

52

where is the LRLN

inferior to the ligamentum arteriosum before ascending between the trachea and oesophagus to reach the larynx

53

where do the mediastinal nodes lie

around the carina
superior tracheobronchial or inferior tracheobronchial

drain the lungs and hila so involved in metastasis

54

where are the anterior mediastinal nodes

around the brachiocephalic veins
drain to thoracic duct or right lymphatic duct and communicate with the deep cervical nodes

therefore lung cancer can cause palpable neck nodes

55

where is the posterior mediastinum

below IV disk at t4/5
behind the pericardial sac and diaphragm
to posterior attachment of diaphragm at t12

56

how many posterior intercostal arteries are there and what do they supply

9
ic spaces 3-11

subcostal arteries lie inf to 12th rib and supply post abdo wall

57

how many bronchial arteries are there

2 on the left and one on the right
direct branch of thoracic aorta

58

where does the middle oesophagus drain to

azygos
because its supplied by the aorta

59

what passes through the right crus of the diaphragm

oesophagus

60

what contributes to the physiological cardiac sphincter

oblique entry into stomach
right crus of diaphragm
resting tone in smooth muscle


this prevents gastric reflux

61

what does the phrenic supply

diaphragm motor
sensory:
central tendon of the diaphragm, its parietal pleura and underlying parietal peritoneum
sensory from mediastinal parietal pleura
sensory from pericardium

a branch of the cervical plexus

62

what is the value of the supraclavicular nerve

c3, 4

supplies skin over shoulder which is the c4 dermatome
hence referred pain

63

what 3 vessels lead into the RA

IVC SVC coronary sinus

64

where are the musculi pectinati and crista terminalis found

RA, anterior wall

65

where is the SAN

close to the opening of SVC

66

where is the AVN

septum between the opening of the coronary sinus and tricuspid valve

67

what is the limbus fossa ovalis

the border of the fossa ovalis

68

where are the trabeculae carneae found

ventricles

69

what is the Septomarginal trabecular aka moderator band

found in the right ventricle
carries impulse to the papillary muscles

70

how many cusps does each papillary muscle send chordae to

2

71

what is the function of the cardiac skeleton

supports the valves and myocardium
electrically separates the atria and ventricles

72

describe the route of the vagus nerve

carries parasympathetic fibres

arises in the medulla oblongata
passes out of the skull with the internal jugular vein
passes into the carotid sheath
lies between the arterial and venous planes
leaves the thorax with the oesophagus

also innervates striated muscles of the pharynx and larynx plus sensory fibres

73

what nerves make the oesophageal plexus

both vagi

also contribute to the pulmonary and cardiac autonomic plexi. they synapse close the viscus

74

where is the right rln

below subclavian (4th arch)

75

what do sensory neurones develop from

neural crest cells

76

what do parasympathetic nerves supply

head, neck and viscera

not skin or limbs

77

what do sympathetic nerves hitchhike with

somatic nerves / arteries

78

where is the stellate ganglion

neck of the 1st rib

79

what is the sympathetic supply of the UL

t4-6

80

what is the sympathetic supply of the thoracic and abdo walls

t1-12

matches the dermatomes

81

what is the sympathetic supply of the LL

t12 -L2

82

what dermatomes is cardiac pain referred to

t1/2 -medial aspect of left arm

83

what supplies the pulmonary plexus

t2-4

84

what supplies the oesophageal plexus

t4-6

85

what supply do blood vessels have

sympathetic only