Lower respiratory tract infections Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lower respiratory tract infections Deck (30)
1

what causes common colds

Rhinoviruses
coronaviruses
coxasackie virus
echovirus
parainfluenza virus

2

what causes laryngitis and tracheitis?

parainfluenza virus
RSI- respiratory syncytial virus
influenza vi.
adenovirus

3

what are the symptoms of laryngitis and tracheitis?

children- croup, cough
adults- hoarseness, retrosternal pain

4

what are the stages of whooping cough

catarrhal stage
paroxysmal stage

5

what causes whooping cough

bordatella pertussis

a gram negative aerobic coccobacillus

6

what causes acute bronchitis

rhinovirus, coronavirus, adenovirus, mycoplasma pneumonia

2y- strep pneumonia
Haemophilus influenza

7

what causes chronic bronchitis

not a pathogen

may be Kartegener syndrome, smoking, CF, SCID etc.

8

what causes bronchiolitis
(only occurs in children)

RSV, usually

may lead to cell necrosis

9

how would you test for RSV?

antigen testing, cell culture, PCR

10

how is pneumonia diagnosed

chest x ray

11

what causes pneumonia?

viral in children, may be acquired during birth
bacterial in adults usually

12

what are common pathogens causing pneumonia

influenza
measles
coronavirus
parainfluenza
RSV
cytomegalovirus
adenovirus

strep pneum
mycobacterium tb
Haem. infl
pseudomonas aeruginosa
staph aureus
and more...

atypical pneumonia-failure to respond to penicillin
mycoplasma pneumonia
legionella pneumophila
chlamydia psittaci
chlamydia pneumonia
coxiella burnetti

13

what types of pneumonia are there

lobar
bronchopneumonia (patchy consolidation)
interstitial
necrotising

14

what are the symptoms of a strep pneumoniae pneumonia

rigors, fever, malaise, tachycardia
dry cough
productive cough with rusty sputum
spiky temperature
lobular consolidation

15

what are the symptoms of measles

fever, runny nose, Koplik's spots, rash
maybe neuro complications
giant cell pneumonia

16

what causes measles

paramyxovirus
replicates in LRT

17

how is measles diagnosed

serology
viral RNA detection

18

how is measles treated

ribavirin if severe

19

what antibiotics are used for community acquired pneumonia

amoxicillin
coamoxiclav
doxycycline
clarithromycin

20

how do you treat hospital acquired pneumonia

ceftriaxone
vancomycin
linezolid

atypical: clarithromycin

21

what does curb 65 stand for

confusion
blood urea nitrogen
resp rate
bp

over 65 yo

22

what virus causes flu

orthomyoxovirus

3 types a, b, c

23

how do genetic differences arise in flu

genetic drift and shift

shift causes pandemics

24

what antivirals can be used in flu

zanamavir
peramivir
oseltamivir

25

what are the symptoms of sars

high fever
dry cough
chills and shivering
muscle aches
dyspnoea

caused by coronavirus

26

what can be used to treat sars

ribavirin
corticosteroids
interferons

27

what is millary tb

acute diffuse dissemination of bacillus

28

what is post primary tb

onset of symptoms over weeks/ months
malaise, fever, weight loss, mucoid or blood stained sputum
pleural effusion
cavitations and calcifications

29

describe the features of tb

neither gram pos or neg
obligate anaerobe - found in well ventilated areas of upper lobes of lung

30

what is the mantoux test

detects latent tb infection