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Flashcards in liver function test Deck (33)
1

what is cholestasis

failure to produce or excrete bile

2

what are the classifications of liver disease

infection
drug induced
autoimmune
billiary
vascular
metabolic
neoplastic

3

what is acute hepatic failure

development of dysfunction within 24 weeks of disease

4

what is chronic hepatic failure

progressive decline in liver function with established disease

5

what are the main causes of acute hepatitis

drug e.g. paracetamol
inadequate perfusion
infection

6

what are common causes of chronic liver disease

alcoholic fatty liver disease
chronic active hepatisis
primary billiary cirrhosis (cholangitis)

7

what are the consequences of chronic liver disease

cirrhosis
portal hypertension
ascites
renal failure
oedema
bruising

8

what are the consequences of portal hypertension

gastric/ oesophageal/ anal varices
hepatic encephalopathy
hypersplenism

9

what are the features of liver failure

inadequate synthesis of albumin and clotting factors
inability to eliminate nitrogenous waste and bilirubin

10

what is hepatic encephalopathy

products normally
metabolised by the liver accumulate in
the systemic circulation.

e.g. ammonia

11

what liver function tests are there

aminotransferase
bilirubin
ALP for biliary epithelial damage/ obstruction
albumin

12

how is bilirubin excreted

as urobilinogen or in bile

13

what does AST and ALT stand for

aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase

non specific markers of acute liver damage

14

what is ALP

increased in liver disease due to increased synthesis in response to cholestasis

it is a protein

alkaline phosphatase

15

what is gamma GT

raised in cholestasis also affected by alcohol and drugs

16

what are the limiations of biochemical tests

lack of specificity
may be over sensitive
enzymes are not exclusively found in the liver

17

what can LFTs be used for in asymptomatic patients

check for haemolysis
pregnancy
skeletal muscle disorders

18

what is the marker for liver cancer

alpha fetoprotein

19

what are copper studies done for

Wilson's disease

20

what are antibodies assessed for

chronic active hepatitis

21

how else can the liver be investigated

liver biopsy
radiology

22

what is Gilbert's syndrome

high levels of bilirubin
liver has difficulty removing bilirubin from the blood

bilirubin levels fluctuate

usually present during illness or fasting
no treatment required

23

what is pruritis

itching

24

what is high ALP with normal ALT indicative of

cholestasis

25

what can caused raised levels of ALP

pregnancy

26

what does alchohol affect

levels of GGT

27

what are the possible causes of increased ALP

cholestasis
pregnancy
bone growth

could be increased in chronic or acute liver failure

28

what LFT would you expect to find in cholestasis

increased bilirubin, ALP, gamma GT, ALT

29

what would you expect to find in chronic liver failure

normal results or slightly increased

30

what would you expect to find in acute liver failure

increased bilirubin and ALT

31

where is ALP found

lining the bile ducts, placenta, bones

32

a patient has raised ALP and GGT

bile tract disease

33

raised ALP normal GGT

bone disease or pregnancy likely