foetal development Flashcards Preview

MD3001 > foetal development > Flashcards

Flashcards in foetal development Deck (42)
1

how many umbilical arteries are there

2

branch of the internal iliac arteries

2

what do the umbilical arteries form

medial umbilical ligament

3

what does the umbilical vein form

ligamentum teres

4

how does blood bypass the liver

ductus venosus

5

what causes constriction of the DA

smooth muscle constriction due to increase O2
decreased levels of prostaglandins
prostaglandin receptors decrease

anatomical closure due to thickening of the tunica intima

6

what are the two layers in the bilaminer disc

epiblast and hypoblast

7

where does the heart tube form

mesoderm from angiogenetic clusters at the cephalic end of the trilaminar disc

8

when does heart development and cephalo caudal folding start

day 18

9

at what end is the truncus arteriosus

cephalic

10

at what end is the sinus venosus

caudal

11

what way does the heart normally fold

towards the right, which pushes the apex left

12

what does the venous end receive

blood from the cardinal, umbilical and vitelline veins

13

what are endocardial cushion cells derived from

neural crest cells

14

what do the endocardial cushions form

interatrial septum
membranous part of interventricular septum
AV valves
PT and aorta from truncus arteriosus

15

in which septum does the foramen ovale form

septum secundum

16

what is the smooth part of the atrium derived from

sinus venosus

17

what is the aorta derived from

truncus arteriosus

18

what are the maxillary arteries derived from

1st pharyngeal arch

19

what forms the common carotid arteries

3rd arch

20

what forms the aortic arch

left 4th arch

21

what forms the right subclavian

right 4th arch

22

what forms the pulmonary trunk and DA

left 6th arch

23

what would you hear with a PDA

continuous machinery murmur

24

what does the first pharyngeal groove form

external auditory meatus

25

what forms where a pouch and groove meet

a membrane

26

what does the first membrane form

the tympanic membrane

27

how many pharyngeal arches are there

6

28

what does each arch consist of

cartilaginous element, artery and cranial nerve

29

what does the septum transversum form

the central tendon of diaphragm and mesentery

30

what does the respiratory diverticulum form

the lung buds

31

what is the tracheooesophageal septum

separates the trachea and oesophagus

32

what can be a result of oesophageal atresia

polyhydramnios

33

what do the pericardio peritoneal canals form

the pleural cavities

34

what are the 4 stages of lung development

pseudoganglia
cacanalicular
terminal saccular
alveolar

35

what happens in the pseudoganglia stage

formation as far as terminal bronchioles

36

what happens in canalicular stage

respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts form
increasing vascularisation

37

what happens in the terminal saccular stage

alveoli form
type 2 pneumocytes form

38

when is the alveolar period

28 weeks until childhood
increase in the number of alveoli

39

when is foetal survival usually possible

28 weeks with sufficient surfactant and weighing at least one kg

risk of respiratory distress syndrome

40

name some possible birth defects associated with the lungs

pulmonary agenesis or hypoplasia

41

what are the origins of the diaphragm

septum transversum
pleuroperitoneal membranes
mesentery of the oesophagus (forms crura)
ingrowth of the body wall

42

name the types of diaphragmatic hernia

posterolateral, anterior and central