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Flashcards in resp path Deck (24)
1

name some resp defence mechanisms

mucus
muco cillary elevator
defensins
alveolar macrophages
polymorphonuclear leukocytes
complement and circulating factors

2

what are beta defensins

proteins that puncture pathogen cell membranes found in inflammatory cells and epithelia

3

what might cause centrilobular emphysema

smoking

4

what might cause panacinar emphysema

alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency

5

name some interstitial lung diseases

sarcoidosis
hypersensitivity pneumonitis
idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

6

what type of tumour is a mesenchyoma

benign

7

what lung cancer may cause paraneoplastic effects?

small cell undifferentiated

may produces ADH, ADTH and demyelination

8

name some NSCLCs

squamous
adenocarcinoma
bronchoalveolar
(intrapulmonary dissemination)

9

what is a typical carcinoid tumour

less aggressive, usually not smoking related

10

what does erlotinib do and geftinib

blocks epidermal growth factors in cancer cells

not all cancers are susceptible
fewer side effects

11

what are the features of mesothelioma

asbestos related
fibrous pleural plaques

12

what does kartageners syndrome do

compromises mucociliary clearance

13

what do bacteria have to do to cause pneumonia

colonise the lung
adhere to resp cells
evade the immune system
express virulence factors

14

what does complement do

attracts PMNs and macrophages
opsonises bacteria

15

what are the features of acute inflammation

exudation
vasodilation
oedema

16

what are the features of chronic inflammation

granulation tissue
macrophages
fibrosis
repair and remodelling

17

what is the pathophys of pneumonia

alveolar inflammation
protein rich exudate
polymorphs, lymphocytes and macrophages
lobar or bronchopneumonia

18

what are the features of bronchopneumonia

patchy consolidation
centred on bronchioles
extremes of age
often secondary to pre existing disease
often bilateral

19

how might you classify pneumonia

clinical circumstances (1y or 2y)
aetilogical agent (bacteria, fungi, viral, other)
host reaction (suppurative or fibrinous)
anatomical pattern (broncho or lobular)

20

what might you see in post primary TB

apical bilateral lesions

21

what would you see in millary tb

many small granulomas

22

what would hyperresonance on percussion indicate

pneumothorax
bullae
pnuemothorax

23

what would dullness indicate

collapse, consolidation or fibrosis

24

what does cortisol do

increases blood sugar

named hydrocortisone when used as a medication
also suppresses the immune system