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Jason's Neuro Block > Cells of the CNS > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cells of the CNS Deck (33):
1

immune cells in the CNS are called?

microglia

2

where are ependymal cells found?

line central canal of spinal cord
low columnar/cuboidal cells

3

purpose of ependymal cells?

aid CSF flow via cilia

4

4 big characteristics of Neurons:

Specialized for signalling
high level of protein synthesis
metabolically limited
terminally differentiated

5

3 components of cytoskeleton and their function:

Actin: dynamic/movement
Intermediate: permanent
Microtubules: dynamic, axon transport

6

what is the metabolic centre of the neuron called?

soma

7

two types of processes that come from neuron?

dendrites: receive
axons: conducting

8

High proportion of total neuron volume are? 2 things

Axons
dentrites

9

why is axonal transport critical?

because so much of the neuron is axon

10

nerve damage is usually where on the neuron?

axon because it's so long

11

Neuron input via dendrites is active or passive?

passive electrotonic spread

12

why do neurons have high protein production?

to make ion channels
receptors
cytoskeleton

13

What are Nissl bodies?

rough ER and ribosomes in neurons

14

Glial cells AKA:

macroglia

15

Astrocytes have 5 key passive support functions:

NT uptake/degradation
K+ homeostasis
neuronal energy supply
BBB maintenance
injury response/recovery

16

2 active functions of astrocytes:

modulate neuronal function
module neuronal blood flow

17

Glutamate does what?

excite

18

GABA does what?

inhibit

19

what happens when glutamate transporters on glial cells are inhibited

neurons are more depolarized, could die

20

What can excite a glia? 4 things

NTs: ATP/glutamate
Trauma
Spontaneous
inflammatory mediators

21

how can you prove glia is active?

modulation in intracellular calcium waves

22

How to glia communicate?

via synaptic vesicles and exocytosis

23

how does glia regulate neuron?

glia release ATP>calcium wave>inhibit neurons

24

Which glial cells surround blood vessels? what do they do?

astrocytes:
vasoconstriction/dilation

25

difference between oligodendrocytes and schwann cells?

oligodendrocytes: CNS white matter
schwann: PNS

26

How many axons do oligodendrocytes vs. schwann cells?

oligodendrocytes: several axons
schwann: single axon

27

Where does microglia originate from?

bone marrow/macrophage lineage

28

microglia fast or slow?

fast: like innate system

29

microglia important for maintaining what?

normal brain function

30

what do microglia do if injury?

release cytokines (damaging)
change rapidly in response to inflammation

31

peripheral nerve have 3 layers

endoneurium: around individual nerve fibre
Perineurium:around fascicles
epineurium: around entire nerve

32

aggregations of cell bodies of neurons outside the CNS are called?

ganglia

33

what do autonomic ganglia house?

cell body of post-ganglionic neurons