Development of Nervous System Flashcards Preview

Jason's Neuro Block > Development of Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Development of Nervous System Deck (37):
1

ectoderm becomes what during neuralation?

neural plate, from it: neural crest: from it: neural groove

2

How many pairs of nerves in CNS?

31 pairs

3

gradient of formation of nervous system?

rostral to caudal

4

closing events of neural fold and problems: explain

separate events, risk of one not closing:
eg. spina bifida and ancephaly

5

what are the 3 distinct vesicles at the rostral end of the neural tube?

prosencephalon (fore)
mesencephalon (mid)
rhombencephalon (hindbrain)

6

prosencephalon splits into?

telencephalon
diencephalon

7

rhombencephalon splits into?

7 segments

8

rhombencephalon splits into two others?

metencephalon: pons
myeloencephalon: medulla

9

where to retinae come from?

optic vesicles of the diencephalon

10

Dicencephalon becomes?

thalamus and hypothalamus

11

What happens to neural crest cells posterior to newly formed neural tube?

migrate away, form lots of structures

12

Neural crest cells become 4 big things:

PNS
melanocytes
muscle, bones of face/jaw
dentine

13

what 4 things does the neural crest form in the PNS?

dorsal root ganglia
symp and parasymp ganglia
enteric ganglia
schwann cells

14

migration of neural crest cells are recovered in what pathological processes?

cancer metastasis

15

how this is the neuroepithelium?

single cell thic

16

what is the ventricular zone?

where neural stem cells start, grow inside-out

17

Stem cells definition?

self-renewing, undifferentiated totipotent: daughter cells able to differentiate

18

what is radial ganglia?

process that guides a migrating neuron

19

What is Reelin mutation?

single protein mutation, malformed cortax

20

what is Lissencephaly? (DCX?)

very few neurons in brain

21

Fragile X causes commonly?

male autism

22

2 devepmental neural disorders?

schizophrenia
fragile X

23

somites do what?

develop muscle and bone

24

neurons controlling distal muscles are medial or lateral?

lateral

25

what does sonic hedgehog do?

induces the floorplate of neural tube to signal 'anterior'

26

what does the floor plate of the notochord do?

induces ventral horn motor neurons

27

explain induction of interneurons

appear just dorsal to motor neurons in notochord

28

do new neurons have axons?

not really, grows out to meet target

29

how is the initial scaffold of axon tracts laid down?

single pioneering axon

30

How do axons grow?

via growth cone, it tows the axon without moving the soma towards its target

31

How do you steer a growth cone?

membrane bound signals like NGF will promote and inhibit in certain areas

32

What is the critical period? when can it occur?

refinement of synaptic connections that establish functional nervous system, can happen post-natally

33

what happened to kitten with glued eye at birth

after 6 months, it was functionally/permanently blind in that eye due to visual cortex refinement to one eye

34

what did the kitten's cortex look like who had the deprived eye?

deprived: less representation
open eye: enhanced representation

35

does timing matter for critical period in kitten eye closing?

yes, after critical period over, no permanent changes neurally

36

What is relative activity in relation to critical period?

no blindness if both eyes are covered
depends on relative neural activity

37

How long is a human critical period?

10 years...