Epilepsy Flashcards Preview

Jason's Neuro Block > Epilepsy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Epilepsy Deck (48):
1

Describe the symptoms of an epileptic seizure?

paroxysmal, inappropriate, hypersynchronous, self-sustained neuronal network activity

2

disease modifying epilepsy requires?

multifaceted approaches

3

what is a partial/focal seizure?

seizure that arises in a limited number of cortical neurons within one hemisphere

4

where in the world is there more cases of epilepsy?

developing countries
lowersocioeconomics

5

consequences of epilepsy? 5 classes:

physical injury
psychiatric
social
medication side effects
mortality

6

people with epilepsy mortality ratio?

3 to 1

7

epilepsy is most common cause of death in who?

young people
sudden unexplained death in epilepsy

8

ECG in epilepsy shows?

discharge loops, hyper synchronous

9

how long do seizures normally last?

60-90 seconds

10

epilepsy vs. seizures?

epilepsy means you're more predisposed to seizures, having a seizure does not mean you have epilepsy

11

3 main causes of epilepsy?

genetic
structural/metabolic
unknown

12

what is a generalised seizure?

arises simultaneously in both hemispheres

13

what kind of epilepsy is it where the underlying brain structure and function is normal? who normally get these.

genetic
usually kids

14

Genetic epilepsy in kids, how to treat? what is the underlying problem likely?

1. respond well to meds
2. usually ion channel defect

15

what kind of epilepsy can you get normally as you get older?

structural/metabolic

16

structural/metabolic epilepsy course? treatment?

1. uncommonly remit
2. incompletely controlled with meds

17

why important to get proper detailed epilepsy dx?

treatment options differ widely

18

Thomas Willis postulated that epilepsy source was?

within the brain

19

Hughlings Jackson said seizures result from?

focal grey matter pathology

20

what would cause the uncontrolled firing of neurons in seizures?

no balance between inhibition and excitation of neurons and networks

21

imbalance in neurons can be caused by what in the connections? 4 things:

1. aberrant sprouting
2. altered excitability
3. altered transmission
4. altered glial environment

22

what is the most sensitive structure to induce seizures? where is it?

Hippocampus
medial temporal lobe structure

23

what are the 4 main subregions of hippocampus?

dentate gyrus
CA 1,2,3

24

Hippocampus is important in?

learning and memory

25

Histopathology of epilepsy shows what? where?

1. Mesial Temporal sclerosis(MTS)

26

Mesial Temporal sclerosis(MTS) consists of 3 features?

1. cell loss in CA1,3, dentate
2. mossy fibre sprouting
3. gliosis

27

uncertain about the progression of seizures of epilepsies and if?

seizures beget seizures

28

Age and epilepsy?

bimodal peak, increased risk young and elderly

29

childhood onset of epilepsy most likely because of?

congenital/perinatal CNS insults

30

reason for late childhood/early adulthood onset epilepsy?

idiopathic/genetic

31

reason for adult/elderly epilepsy?

acquired/trauma/structural

32

what increases you chances of having epilepsy 60x?

Alzheimer's

33

most ppl with idiopathic generalized epilepsies have?

genetic inheritance

34

MRI epilepsy usually find focal lesions of what kind in epilepsy?

70% medically refractory
20% new onset seizures

35

mesial temporal sclerosis means what for treatment?

drug resistance

36

mesial temporal sclerosis good candidates for what treatment?

surgery

37

mesial temporal sclerosis most common cause of?

adults with partial epilepsy

38

2 most common cause of drug resistant epilepsy?

malformation of cortical development

39

aetiology of focal cortical dysplasia?

unknown

40

what is the condition of inherited generalized malformation due to abnormal neuronal migration causing epilepsy?

periventricular nodular heterotopia

41

most common cause of new onset partial seizures?

low grade tumours

42

most common type of low grade tumour causing epilepsy?

gliomas affecting cortial>subcortical

43

10% of patients with drug resistant partial epilepsy have? what two major ones?

vascular lesions: blood in brain can cause seizures
1.cavernoma
2. ateriovenous malformations

44

what is a cavernoma?

tangled mass of vessels slowing blood flow causing seizures

45

anti-epileptic drugs treat what?

symptoms only not underlying condition

46

how long take epilepsy drugs for?

years/lifetime

47

3 non med epilepsy Rx?

surgery
neurostim
dietary

48

when do epilepsy surgery?

focal localized drug-resistance epilepsy