Posture/Motor Control Flashcards Preview

Jason's Neuro Block > Posture/Motor Control > Flashcards

Flashcards in Posture/Motor Control Deck (35):
1

Sign
symptom
syndrome?

Sign - observable
symptoms: reported by patient
syndrome: clusters of signs/symptoms

2

what two brain areas help to refine movement initiated by motor cortex?

Basal Ganglia
Cerebellum

3

what is a motor unit?

the group of muscle fibers that are innervated by a single alpha motor neuron

4

muscle strength grows how neuronally?

incrementally, changes depending on how many impulses are sent

5

What is Henneman's size principle?

start recruiting small fatigue resistant motor neurons then larger fatiguable ones as you need more force

6

what is meant by a 'secure' motoneuron?

an impulse will definitely release ACh(NicR) and make it contract.

7

What is a fibrillation?

tiny contraction of single muscle cell

8

what is fasciculation?

groups of muscle fibres contracting involuntarily. usu from degen MN

9

what happens to muscle after long term denervation?

atrophy (Cushing's)

10

are muscles inactive? when are they?

usually not: resting tone
only during REM sleep

11

What encodes length of muscle fibres?

intrafusal muscle fibers

12

what encodes force in muscle?

golgi tendon organ

13

golgi tendon organ encodes?

muscle force

14

intrafusal muscle fibres encode?

muscle length

15

how to record muscle activity?

Electromyography (EMG)

16

2 things come into play when catching a ball dropped from a height:

1. feedforward (anticipation)
2. feedback (adjustments)

17

LMN lesion:

flaccid paralysis
hyporeflexia
decreased tone
fascicullations/fibrillations
atrophy

18

anything between cotricospinal tract and alpha motor neuron?

usually local interneurons

19

spinal cord gray matter, what is medial? what is laterl?

proximal muscles
distal muscles

20

what happens in the brainstem with the corticospinal tract?

collaterals to reticular formation

21

what does the lateral and medial vestibulospinal tracts do?

postural maintenance

22

what does reticulospinal tract do?

midline muscles/posture

23

what does colliculospinal tract do?

helps with orienting reflex of sight

24

UMN lesion?

spastic paralysis/weakness
increased tone
hyperreflexive
clonus
+ve babinski

25

pattern generators are usually located where?

all in the spinal cord, eg. stepping reflex/gait cycle

26

what happens to decerebrate cat gait when treadmill speed increased?

sensory feedback of muscle length to spinal cord allows speed to increase

27

ataxic gait affected where?

cerebellum, coordination

28

choreaform gait

excessive movements

29

Which pathways for:
1. Voluntary movements
2. stability/posture?

1. lateral descending
2. medial descending

30

Decerebrate posture?

extended upper and lower limbs, arched back

31

decorticate posture?

flexed upper limbs, extended lower limb

32

lesion above red nucleus you get?

decorticate

33

below red nucleus you get?

decerebrate

34

intact rubrospinal tract from red nucleus causes what?

upper limb flexors: decorticate

35

how can you tell is UMN or LMN in facial nerve?

UMN, superior facial muscles are preserved due to dual innervation