Ch 34 Chordates - Fish Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 34 Chordates - Fish Deck (89):
1

Three major groups of bilateral animals

1) Deuterostomes
2) Lophotrocozoa
3) Ecdysozoa

2

What clade of bilaterians do humans belong to?

Deuterostomia

3

All echinoderms are what?

Marine animals

4

Echinoderms have what kind of symmetry?

Secondarily evolved radial symmetry

5

From where did the symmetry of echinoderms evolve?

A bilateral ancestor

6

What kind of symmetry is exhibited by echinoderm larva?

Bilateral symmetry

7

Echindoerms have what kind of internal support system?

A calcium-containing endoskeleton

8

Endoskeleton

Internal skeleton

9

What is the internal support system of echinoderms composed of?

Plate or tiny, scattered bony elements

10

Are any of the echinoderms parasites?

No

11

How do echinoderms move?

Via a water-vascular system

12

Water-vascular system

Fluid is pushed from muscular ampullae into tube feet, causing them to extend

13

What two things typically cover the surface of echinoderms?

1) Spines

2) Pedicellariae

14

Pedicellariae

Tiny jaws

15

Pedicellariae serve what purpose?

They keep the surface clear of debris and parasites

16

Catch collagen

Changes rapidly between solid and liquid states in response to stimulation from the nervous system

17

What is a unique connective tissue of echinoderms?

Catch collagen

18

What kind of symmetry is observed in sea cucumbers?

Secondarily evolved bilateral symmetry

19

How do sea cucumbers digest organic matter

In ingested sediment

20

How is the digestive system of sea cucumbers used as a defensive mechanism?

It can be expelled (and regenerated)

21

Four shared derived characters of chordates

1) Notochord
2) Dorsal, hollow nerve cord
3) Pharyngeal slits/clefts
4) Muscular, post-anal tail

22

Notochord

A semi-rigid rod of cells enclosed by a fibrous sheath

23

Function of the notochord

Functions as a skeletal muscle

24

Nerve cord

Dorsal and hollow

Runs length of body

25

Pharyngeal slits

Openings in the pharyngeal cavity (throat) to the outside of the animal

26

In later chordates, what gave rise to the structures of the middle ear, tonsils, and internal gills?

The evolution of pouches between the pharyngeal slits

27

Post-anal tail

Muscular

Evolved for locomotion in water

28

Two clades of the chordates that divered early in the evolution of vertebrates

1) Cephalochordata

2) Urochordata

29

Cephalochordates (lancelets)

Small, thin filter feeders

Found in sandy bottoms in coastal waters

30

Cephalochordates lack what?

1) Gills
2) Heart

31

Cephalochordates posses what?

A closed circulatory system

32

Are urochordates or cephalochordates more closely related to chordates?

Urochordates

33

How do urochordates (tunicates) feed?

Filter feeding

Draw water in through an incurrent siphon

34

Do all urochordates (tunicates) posses all four chordate traits?

No, only the free-swimming larva have all four traits

35

Craniates

Chordates that have a head

36

Craniates posses what?

1) Heat with at least two chambers
2) Red blood cells with hemoglobin
3) Kidneys

37

Neural crest

Feature unique to craniate embryos

38

The neural crest gives rise to what structures?

Some bone of the cartilage of the skull

39

Haikouella

Among the most primitive of chordate fossils

40

How long ago did Haikouella live?

530 mya

41

Haikouella possesed what?

1) Well formed brain
2) Eyes
3) Muscular segments

42

Haikouella lack what?

A skull

43

Is "fish" a good monophyletic group within the chordates?

No

44

Two groups of jawless fishes

1) Myxini

2) Petromyzontida

45

Myxini skeletal system

Notochord only "backbone"

46

Petromyzontida skeletal system

Fibrous and cartilaginous skeleton

47

Myxini braincase

Cartilaginous braincase

48

Petromyzontida braincase

Cartilaginous braincase

49

Myxini fins

No paired fins

50

Myxini digestion

No stomach

51

Petromyzontida fins

No paired fins

52

Petromyzontida digestion

Distinct stomach

53

Myxini circulatory system

Partially open circulatory system with four hearts

54

Petromyzontida circulatory system

Closed circulatory system with one heart

55

Gnathostomes

Chordates with jaws

56

Gnathostomes include (six):

1) Sharks, etc
2) Ray-finned fishes
3) Lobe-finned fishes
4) Amphibians
5) Reptiles (including birds)
6) Mammals

57

Two advantages of jaws

1) Improved respiratory efficiency
2) Facilitated prey handling

58

How did jaws improve respiratory efficiency?

Closing jaws prevent backflow when water is passed over the gills

59

How did jaws facilitate handling prey?

They allows for grasping, biting, and suction feeding

60

From what structures may the jaws of gnathostomes evolve?

Skeletal supports of the pharyngeal slits

61

What are the earliest gnathostomes in the fossil record?

Placoderms

62

Placoderms

An extinct lineage of armored vertebrates

63

How long ago did placoderms live?

450 mya

64

Chondricthyans have a skeleton composed primarily of what?

Cartilage

65

The largest and most diverse group of chondrichthyans include what?

1) Sharks
2) Rays
3) Skates

66

What is a derived trait of chondrichthyes?

The lack of mineralization in their cartilaginous skeleton

67

The vertebrate ancestors of chondrichthyes possessed what?

Calcified bony skeletal elements

68

What kind of scales are found on chondricthyans?

Placoid

69

Placoid scales

Modified to form horns, spines, and teeth

70

The teeth of skates and rays are modified into what?

Plates for crushing molluscs, crustaceans, or fish

71

What is one intestinal adaptation of the chondrichthyans?

Spiral valve

72

Spiral valve

Slows the passage of food and increases the surface area for absorption

73

What contributes to buoyancy in sharks?

A huge, oily liver

74

Why must sharks continually swim?

Because they are denser than water and will sink if they stop swimming

75

Claspers

Modifications of the pelvic fins used in copulation

76

Are shark eggs fertilized internally or externally?

Internally

77

Three ways shark eggs develop:

1) Oviparous
2) Ovoviviparous
3) Viviparous

78

Oviparous

Eggs hatch outside the mother's body

79

Ovoviviparous

The embryo develops within the uterus and is nourished by the egg yolk

80

Viviparous

The embryo develops within the uterus and is nourished through a yolk sac placenta from the mother's blood

81

What clade of gnathostomes do a vast majority of vertebrates belong to?

Osteichthyes

82

Osteichthyans include:

1) Bony fish
2) Tetrapods

83

Actinopterygii

Ray-finned fishes

84

Nearly all the familiar osteichthyans belong to what?

The Acinopterygii

85

Osteichthyans have what kind of skeletal system?

A bony skeletal system

86

What covers the gills of osteichthyans?

A plate-like operculum

87

Operculum

Allows fish to breath efficiently without forward movement

88

How are bony fishes more diverse than the chondricthyes?

They have more diverse teeth and digestive system

89

What increased swimming efficiency and maneuverability in bony fishes?

The evolution of a gas bladder