Ch 52 Introduction to Ecology Flashcards Preview

BIOL 172 > Ch 52 Introduction to Ecology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 52 Introduction to Ecology Deck (61):
1

Ecology

The scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment

2

Interactions between organisms and the environment determine what?

The distribution of organisms and their abundance

3

Modern ecology includes what two things?

1) Observation
2) Experimentation

4

Landscape ecology

Focuses on the exchange of energy, materials, and organisms across ecosystems

5

Ecosystem

The community of organisms in an area and the physical factors with which they interact

6

Ecosystem ecology

Emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling among the various biotic and abiotic components

7

Community

A group of populations of different species in an area

8

Community ecology

Deals with the interactions of species in a community

9

Population

A group of individuals of the same species living in an area

10

Population ecology

Focuses on factors effecting population size over time

11

Organismal ecology

Studies how physiology and (for animals) behavior meet environmental challenges

12

Physiology

An organism's structure

13

Organismal ecology includes (1) ___ ___, (2)___ ___, and (3)___ ___

1) Physiological ecology
2) Behavioral ecology
3) Evolutionary ecology

14

Climate

The long-term prevailing weather conditions in an area

15

Four major components of climate

1) Temperature
2) Precipitation
3) Sunlight
4) Winde

16

Macroclimate

Consists of patterns on the global, regional, and landscape level

17

Microclimate

Consists of patterns on finer scales

18

What two factors cause seasonality at high latitudes?

1) Tilt of the Earth's axis
2) Annual passage of the Earth around the sun

19

What factors produce regions of high rainfall, deserts, and trade winds?

1) Rotation of the Earth
2) Warm air rising at the equator

20

Equator

Area of high fainfall

21

Trade winds

Horizontal winds

22

What three things moderate the climates of nearby terrestrial environments?

1) Oceans
2) Ocean currents
3) Large lakes

23

During the day, air (1)___ over (2)___ land and draws a (3)___ breeze from the water across the land

1) Rises
2) Warm
3) Cool

24

During the night, air (1)___ over (2)___ and draws a (3)___ breeze from the land across the water

1) Falls
2) Cool
3) Cool

25

Rising, cooling air (1)___ moisture on the (2)___ side of a peak

1) Releases
2) Windward

26

Air (1)___ moisture on the (2)___ side of a peak

1) Absorbs
2) Leeward

27

What determines a microclimate?

Fine-scale differences in the environment that affect light and wind patterns

28

Two factors the characterize the difference in environments:

1) Abiotic factors
2) Biotic factors

29

Abiotic

Includes nonliving attributes

Temperature, light, water, and nutrients

30

Biotic

Includes other organisms that are part of an individual's environment

31

Biomes

Major life zones

32

Biomes are characterized by:

1) Vegetation type (terrestrial biomes)

2) Physical environment (aquatic biomes)

33

(1)___ is the predominant factor in determining why (2)___ ___ are fond in certain areas

1) Climate
2) Terrestrial biomes

34

Terrestrial biomes are often named for what?

1) Major physical or climate factors
2) Vegetation

35

Ecotone

The area of intergradiation between terrestrial biomes

36

Is an ecotone wide or narrow?

It can be either wide or narrow

37

Disturbance

An event that changes a community

38

Three major disturbances:

1) Storm
2) Fire
3) Human activity

39

In terms of area, do terrestrial or aquatic biomes account for the largest part o the biosphere?

Aquatic biomes

40

Aquatic biomes show less ___ ___ than terrestrial biomes

Latitudinal variation

41

What is the largest marine biome?

The ocean

42

Many aquatic biomes are stratified into distinct layers defined by:

1) Light penetration
2) Temperature
3) Depth

43

Pelagic zone

The open photic and aphotic zones

44

Benthic zone

Sediment at the bottom

45

Abyssal zone

2,000 to 6,000 meters in depth

46

Thermocline

A temperature boundary that separates the warm upper layer from the cold deeper layer

47

Turnover

Semiannual mixing of water

48

Large lakes undergo what process?

Turnover

49

Species distributions are the result of (1) ___ and (2)___ interactions through time

1) Ecological
2) Evolutionary

50

Ecological time

The minute-to-minute time frame of interactions between organisms and the environment

51

Evolutionary time

Spans many generations and captures adaptations through natural selection

52

Species transplants include what?

Organisms that are intentionally or accidentally relocated from their original environment

53

What does a successful species transplant indicate?

That the species' potential range is larger than its actual range

54

What is one downside to species transplants?

They can disrupt the communities or ecosystems to which they have been introduced

55

Four questions to ask regarding why a species is absent from an area:

1) Does dispersal limit its distribution?

2) Does behavior limit its distribution?

3) Do biotic factors (other species) limit its distribution?

4) Do abiotic factors limit its distribution?

56

If dispersal limits a species from spreading into an area, what is indicated?

The area is inaccessible or insufficient time has passed for that species to spread into that area

57

If behavior limits a species from spreading into an area, what is indicated?

The presence of habitat selection

58

If biotic factors (other species) limit a species from spreading into an area, what is indicated?

The presence of predation, parasitism, competition, and/or disease

59

If abiotic factors limit a species from spreading into an area, what is indicated?

The presence of chemical factors or physical factors

60

Chemical factors include:

1) Water
2) Oxygen
3) Salinity
4) pH
5) Soil nutrients

61

Physical factors include:

1) Temperature
2) Light
3) Soil structure
4) Fire
5) Moisture