Flashcards in Ch 52 Introduction to Ecology Deck (61):
The scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment
Interactions between organisms and the environment determine what?
The distribution of organisms and their abundance
Modern ecology includes what two things?
Focuses on the exchange of energy, materials, and organisms across ecosystems
The community of organisms in an area and the physical factors with which they interact
Emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling among the various biotic and abiotic components
A group of populations of different species in an area
Deals with the interactions of species in a community
A group of individuals of the same species living in an area
Focuses on factors effecting population size over time
Studies how physiology and (for animals) behavior meet environmental challenges
An organism's structure
Organismal ecology includes (1) ___ ___, (2)___ ___, and (3)___ ___
1) Physiological ecology
2) Behavioral ecology
3) Evolutionary ecology
The long-term prevailing weather conditions in an area
Four major components of climate
Consists of patterns on the global, regional, and landscape level
Consists of patterns on finer scales
What two factors cause seasonality at high latitudes?
1) Tilt of the Earth's axis
2) Annual passage of the Earth around the sun
What factors produce regions of high rainfall, deserts, and trade winds?
1) Rotation of the Earth
2) Warm air rising at the equator
Area of high fainfall
What three things moderate the climates of nearby terrestrial environments?
2) Ocean currents
3) Large lakes
During the day, air (1)___ over (2)___ land and draws a (3)___ breeze from the water across the land
During the night, air (1)___ over (2)___ and draws a (3)___ breeze from the land across the water
Rising, cooling air (1)___ moisture on the (2)___ side of a peak
Air (1)___ moisture on the (2)___ side of a peak
What determines a microclimate?
Fine-scale differences in the environment that affect light and wind patterns
Two factors the characterize the difference in environments:
1) Abiotic factors
2) Biotic factors
Includes nonliving attributes
Temperature, light, water, and nutrients
Includes other organisms that are part of an individual's environment
Major life zones
Biomes are characterized by:
1) Vegetation type (terrestrial biomes)
2) Physical environment (aquatic biomes)
(1)___ is the predominant factor in determining why (2)___ ___ are fond in certain areas
2) Terrestrial biomes
Terrestrial biomes are often named for what?
1) Major physical or climate factors
The area of intergradiation between terrestrial biomes
Is an ecotone wide or narrow?
It can be either wide or narrow
An event that changes a community
Three major disturbances:
3) Human activity
In terms of area, do terrestrial or aquatic biomes account for the largest part o the biosphere?
Aquatic biomes show less ___ ___ than terrestrial biomes
What is the largest marine biome?
Many aquatic biomes are stratified into distinct layers defined by:
1) Light penetration
The open photic and aphotic zones
Sediment at the bottom
2,000 to 6,000 meters in depth
A temperature boundary that separates the warm upper layer from the cold deeper layer
Semiannual mixing of water
Large lakes undergo what process?
Species distributions are the result of (1) ___ and (2)___ interactions through time
The minute-to-minute time frame of interactions between organisms and the environment
Spans many generations and captures adaptations through natural selection
Species transplants include what?
Organisms that are intentionally or accidentally relocated from their original environment
What does a successful species transplant indicate?
That the species' potential range is larger than its actual range
What is one downside to species transplants?
They can disrupt the communities or ecosystems to which they have been introduced
Four questions to ask regarding why a species is absent from an area:
1) Does dispersal limit its distribution?
2) Does behavior limit its distribution?
3) Do biotic factors (other species) limit its distribution?
4) Do abiotic factors limit its distribution?
If dispersal limits a species from spreading into an area, what is indicated?
The area is inaccessible or insufficient time has passed for that species to spread into that area
If behavior limits a species from spreading into an area, what is indicated?
The presence of habitat selection
If biotic factors (other species) limit a species from spreading into an area, what is indicated?
The presence of predation, parasitism, competition, and/or disease
If abiotic factors limit a species from spreading into an area, what is indicated?
The presence of chemical factors or physical factors
Chemical factors include:
5) Soil nutrients