Ch 33 An Introduction to Invertebrates Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 33 An Introduction to Invertebrates Deck (61):
1

Three major groups of bilateral animals

1) Deuterostomes
2) Lophotrocozoa
3) Ecdysozoa

2

Phylum Porifera

Sponges

3

Sponges have 1)___ ___ ___ but no 2)___ ___

1) Specialized cell types
2) True tissues

4

What kind of locomotion is exhibited by sponges?

None, they are sessile

5

What creates water currents that move through the body of the sponge?

Movement occurring in flagella-bearing collar cells

6

What supports the sponge body?

Spicules

7

Spicules

Tiny calcium or silicon structures

8

What structures in sponges function in digestion?

Amoebocytes

9

Phylum Cnidaria

1) Jellyfish
2) Anenomes
3) Corals

10

Cnidarians posses what kind of symmetry?

Radial

11

How do cnidarians feed?

By capturing food particles or prey from the water

12

What are the two body forms of cnidarians?

1) Polyp (sessile)
2) Medusa (free-swimming)

13

Many cnidarians have a life cycle that includes both 1)___ and 2)___ stages

1) Polyp
2) Medusa

14

Cnidarians can possess sense organs used in 1)___ and detection of 2)___

1) Balance
2) Light

15

Nematocysts

Held under high pressure (140 atm)

Launch a venomous spine at prey

16

Lophotrocozoans share traits of:

1) Lophohore
2) Trocophore

17

Lophophore

A horse-shoe shaped feeding structure

18

Trocophore

Ciliated larva

19

Phylum Platuhelminthes

Flatworms

20

Flatworms lack:

1) Circulatory system
2) Respiratory system
3) Skeletal system
4) Coelom
5) Complete gut

21

What indicates that flatworms may not be a good monophyletic taxon?

No shared derived trait unites all members of this group

22

Groups based on 1)___ form have been shown to be 2)___

1) Coelom
2) Polyphyletic

23

What was once the basis for major classification within the protostomes?

Coelom

24

Reproduction of flatworms:

Usually, sexual via hermaphroditism

25

Class Monogenea

All parasites

Phylum Playhelminthes

26

Monogeneans have what?

The unciliated synctial layer typical of flatworms (except Turberllaria)

27

Monogeneans are usually the parasites of what?

The skin and gills of fish

28

Class Trematoda

Flukes (all parasitic)

Phylum Platyhelminthes

29

Flukes are usually the parasites of what?

A mollusc and vertebrate host

30

How many people are infected with flukes?

200 million

31

Symptoms of fluke parasitism:

1) Pain
2) Anemia
3) Dysentery
4) Liver damage

32

Class Trematoda

Phylum Platyhelminthes

33

Dicroceolium (Class Trematoda) alters ant behavior for what purpose?

To increase the likelihood that it will be passed on to the next host (cow)

34

Class Cestoda

Tapeworms

Phylum Platyhelminthes

35

Tapeworms lack:

1) Head
2) Digestive system
3) Sense organs

36

Tapeworms are mostly the parasites of what?

The intestine of vertebrates

37

Proglottids

Comprises the body of tapeworms

38

Are tapeworms hermaphroditic or gonochoric?

Hermaphroditic

39

Scolex

Hooked structures

40

What attaches a tapeworm to the host's intestine?

The scolex

41

Phylum Rotifera

Rotifers

42

Maximum size of rotifers

3mm

43

What kind of habitats to rotifers live in?

A wide range of aquatic and marine habitats

44

Are rotifers able to survive extreme environmental conditions (drying, cold)?

Yes

45

Three feeding types of rotifers:

1) Predators
2) Parasites
3) Filter feeders

46

What is the mouth of rotifers equipped with?

A hard, muscular jaw

47

Are rotifers hermaphroditic or gonochoristic?

Gonochoristic

48

Phylum Mollusca

Mollusks

49

Mollusca is one of the largest phylums, with over ___ species

90,000

50

What limits mollusk habitat?

Their need for water

51

What kind of climates do mollusks live in?

They are found in polar to tropical regions

52

What is the size range of mollusks?

Microscopic to ~1 ton

53

Mollusk shells are composed of ___ ___

Calcium carbonate

54

Radula

A scraping, tongue-like feeding structure

55

In what mollusks is the radula found?

All major mollusk classes, except bivalves

56

Mantle

Encloses a mantle cavity and a muscular foot

57

Most gastropods mollusks are ___

Herbivores

58

How do bivalves move?

1) By extending and anchoring the foot
2) Propelling water between the valves

59

Class Cephalopoda

Octopods and squid

Phylum Mollusca

60

Class Gastropoda

Snails and slugs

Phylum Mollusca

61

Class Bivalvia

Clams

Phylum Mollusca