Ch 35 Plant Structure and Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 35 Plant Structure and Development Deck (65):
1

What percentage of plants are angiosperms?

90%

2

Two main groups of angiosperms

1) Monocots
2) Dicots

3

Monocots

Palms, grasses, orchids, lilies

4

Eudictos

Most everything except water lilies and magnolias

5

Monocot embryo

One cotyledon

6

Eudicot embryo

Two cotyledons

7

Monocot leaf venation

Veins usually parallel

8

Eudicot leaf venation

Veins usually netlike

9

Monocot stems

Vascular tissue scattered

10

Eudicot stems

Vascular tissue usually arranged in ring

11

Shoot system

Responsible for light and CO2 acquisition and photosynthesis

12

Root system

Responsible for water and mineral acquisition

13

Functions of the root

1) Anchoring the plant
2) Absorbing minerals and water
3) Storing carbohydrates

14

Most eudicots and gymnosperms have what kind of root system?

A taproot system

15

A taproot system consists of:

1) Taproot

2) Lateral roots

16

Taproot

Main vertical root

17

Lateral roots

Arise from the taproot or adventitious root

18

Most monocots have what kind of root system?

A fibrous root system

19

A fibrous root system consists of:

1) Adventitious roots

2) Lateral roots

20

Adventitious roots

Arise from stems or leaves

21

Where does absorption occur in roots?

At roots hairs

22

Root hairs

Thin, tubular extension of root cells

23

A stem consists of:

1) Alternating system of nodes

2) Internodes

24

Nodes

The points at which leaves are attached

25

Internodes

The stem segments between nodes

26

Axillary bud

A structure that has the potential to form a lateral shoot

27

Lateral shoot

A branch

28

Apical bud

Causes elongation of a young shoot

29

An apical bud is located where?

Near the shoot tip

30

Apical dominance

Helps to maintain dormancy in most axillary buds

31

The major axes of stem growth are in line with what?

The apical buds

32

Leaf

Main photosynthetic organ of most vascular plants

33

Leaf parts

1) Flattened blade
2) Petiole

34

Petiole

A stalk that joins the leaf to a node of the stem

35

What do axillary buds indicate?

Where a single leaf begins

36

Each plant organ has what three things?

Dermal, vascular, and ground tissues

37

Dermal

Outer protective covering

38

In nonwoody plants, what form does the dermal layer take?

It is present as a single layer of epidermal cells

39

Vascular

Transports materials between plant organs, namely the roots and shoots

40

Ground

Involved in support, storage, and metabolism

41

In nonwoody plants the dermal tissue system consists of:

1) Epidermis

2) Cuticle

42

Periderm

Replaces the epidermis in older regions of stems and roots in woody plants

43

Trichomes

Outgrowths of the shoot epidermis

44

What can trichomes help with?

Infect defense

45

Two vascular tissues:

1) Xylem
2) Phloem

46

Xylem

Conveys water and dissolved minerals upward from roots into the shoots

47

Phloem

Transports organic nutrients from where they are made to where they are needed

48

Tissues that are neither dermal nor vascular are what?

Ground tissue

49

Ground tissues include what?

Cells specialized for strorage, photosynthesis, and support

50

What kind of cells are usually the primary site of photosynthesis?

Ground tissue cells of the leaves (mesophyll)

51

Plant growth occurs indeterminately at ___

Meristems

52

Meristems

Regions of embryonic growth

53

Primary growth

Lengthening of stems

54

Where does primary growth occur?

At apical meristems

55

Root cap

Protects the apical meristems at the end of a root

56

How is a root cap pushed through the soil?

By cell division, elongation, and differentiation

57

Where does secondary growth occur?

Lateral meristems

58

Secondary growth

Increasing thickness/width of woody plants

59

Two lateral meristems

1) Vascular cambium

2) Cork cambium

60

Vascular cambium

Adds layers secondary xylem and secondary phloem

61

Cork cambium

Replaces the epidermis with periderm

62

Periderm

Thicker and tougher than the epidermis

63

In cross section, what does the vascular cambium appear as?

A ring of stem cells

64

Stem cells in plants increase what?

The vascular cambium's circumference

65

Stem cells in plants add what?

Secondary xylem to the inside and secondary phloem to the outside