Ch 50 Sensory System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 50 Sensory System Deck (40):
1

What transmits pain signals?

Free nerve endings

2

What stimulates a pain signal?

1) Thermal stimuli

2) Mechanical stimuli

3) Molecules released by injured cells

3

What two things are related in most animals?

1) Hearing

2) Perception of body equilibrium

4

Mechanoreceptors

Detect particles or moving fluids for hearing and perception of body equilibrium

5

Hair cells

Receptors with mechanically-gated ion channels that open in response to displacement

6

Hair cells are the receptors of what?

1) Hearing

2) Equilibrium

3) Electroreceptive

7

Are all hair cells of similar structure?

Yes

8

Functions of vertebrate ear function

1) Sound reception

2) Balance

9

Three structures through which vibrations from sounds are transmitted (in order)

1) Tympanic membrane

3) Three middle ear bones

3) Cochlea

10

How is volume detected?

By the number of hair cells stimulated

11

How is pitch detected?

By the position of the stimulated cells along the cochlea

12

In invertebrates, movement and position relative to gravity is detected by:

Statolith-containing organs

13

In vertebrates, movement and position relative to gravity is detected by:

The inner ear

14

What is the later line system of aquatic vertebrates used for?

To detect vibrations and currents in water

15

Chemoreception

The oldest and most universal sensory modality

16

Six things chemoreception is important in identiying

1) Food
2) Mates
3) Predators
4) Noxious chemicals
5) CO2
6) H2O

17

Olfactory cells

The receptors of smell

18

Olfactory cells detect signals that:

1) Are distant from their source

2) Are at low threshold

3) Originate from volatile/soluble substances

19

Phereomones

Chemicals used for communication among members of the same species

20

How many different odorant receptors are possessed by mammals?

Over 1000

21

Gustatory cells

The receptors of taste

22

Gustatory receptors detect signals that

1) Come from contact with the chemical (especially contact with mouth parts)

2) Are food-related

3) Are water-soluble

4) Are in high concentrations

23

In humans, how are receptor cells for taste organized?

As taste buds

24

Individual taste cells of humans express what?

One receptor type

25

Individual taste cells detect what?

One of the five tastes

26

Five tastes

1) Sweet
2) Salty
3) Sour
4) Bitter
5) Umami

27

Electroreceptors

Detect the electric field produced by the muscle activity of living organisms

28

Electroreception is widely distributed among what group of organisms?

Aquatic chordates

29

Photoreceptors

Receptors that respond to light

30

The compound eyes of arthropods are comprised of many what?

Adjacent photoreceptors

Each with their own protective cornea and focusing lens

31

Each photoreceptor of the arthropod compound eye contributes what?

A "pixel" to the image

32

Single-lens eye of vertebrates

Focuses light on photoreceptors in the retina

33

Rhodospins

Pigments that change configuration in response to light

34

Rhodospins trigger what?

A reaction that stimulates nerves

35

Rod photoreceptors

Sensitive to low light

36

Cone photoreceptors

Sensitive to specific frequencies of light

37

Cone photoreceptors are used for what kind of vision?

Color vision

38

What results from interaction among neurons of the retina?

1) Lateral inhibition

2) Enhanced contrast in the image

39

Pit organ

Detect infrared radiation

Function in thermal imaging

40

Pit organs are possessed by what?

Some vipers