Flashcards in Ch 40 Animal Form and Function Deck (69):
A group of similar cells (and cell products) specialized for performance of a common function
Four basic types of tissue
A sheet of cells that covers an external or internal surface
Three functions of epithelial tissue
Epithelial tissue produces what?
3) Other cellular products
What does epithelial tissue lack?
A direct blood supply
What supports epithelial tissue?
A basement layer of connective tissue
Involved in secretion and absorption
Found in lines and small ducts
Simple columnar epithelium
Found in highly absorptive surfaces (intestine)
Cells may have microvilli extending the surface
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Lining of trachea (respiratory airways)
Stratified squamous epithelium
More than one layer continually produced by the basal layer of cells
Withstand stretching and abrasion as in the mouth
Simple squamous epithelium
Permits diffusion of molecules
Blood vessels and lungs
Loose connective tissue
Fixed and free cells suspended in a thick fluid
Function of loose connective tissue
Binds epithelial tissue to underlying tissue and holds organs in place
Fibrous connective tissue
Densely packed fibers
Function of fibrous connective tissue
Connects muscles and bones (tendons, ligaments)
Functions of connective tissue
Connective tissue is composed of what?
1) Cells embedded in a matrix of fibers
2) A thick fluid ground substance
Characteristics of collagen
1) High tensile strength
2) High elastic resilience
Most abundant protein in the bodies of animals
Collagen comprises much of what?
Fibers in connective tissues
Dense, irregular arrangement of collagen
Collagen arranged in sheets
Ligaments connect what?
Bone to bone
Collagen in a cable-like arrangement
Tendons connect what?
Muscle to bone
Closely-packed fivers in a gel-like matrix
Where are the cells of cartilage located?
Small pockets in the matrix
Where does cartilage occur?
2) Respiratory airways
A living, highly vascular tissue containing
Bone contains what?
Collagen fibers deposited with calcium salts
Deposit bone lamellae around the marrow
Break down bone and reabsorb the minerals
Most bone develops from what?
How does bone develop?
Osteoblasts deposit extracellular calcium throughout spaces in the cartilage
What extends bones during growth?
Active cartilage cells at the epiphyseal plate
Bone strength is proportional to what?
Its cross-section area
Muscle has what kind of construction?
What is bundled into muscle fibers?
Myofibril contractile units
What are muscle fibers bundled into?
Fascicles which comprise muscles
What role does ATP play in muscle movement?
ATP activated heads on thick myosin filaments attach to and pull thin actin filaments
Slow acting, efficient involuntary muscle
Skeletal muscle is involved in what kind of movement?
Skeletal muscle is found where in the body?
Attached to bone
Smooth muscle is found where in the body?
Intestines and blood vessels
Fast acting, involuntary muscle of the heart
Senses stimuli and transmit signals throughout the animal
Nervous tissue contains:
2) Glial cells (glia)
Glial cells (glia)
Nourish, insulate, and replenish neurons
Metabolic rate varies proportional to what?
The ratio of surface area to volume
What kinds of animals have higher metabolism per unit of body mass?
The maintenance of internal steady states of physiological self regulation
What is the primary feedback that maintains homeostasis?
The maintenance of a stable body temperature
Why is thermoregulation necessary for life?
Enzymes have an optimum temperature under which they function best
Most life exists between what temperatures?
0 to 40 degrees Celsius
32 to 104 degrees Fahrenheit
Organisms that do not produce metabolic heat at rates high enough to regulate their body temperature
Organisms that generate enough metabolic heat to raise their temperature above that of the environment
Organisms whose body temperature varies with its environment
Organisms whose body temperature remains relatively constant
Is the relationship between heat source and body temperature fixed?
Region of the brain that controls thermoregulation
What is triggered by the hypothalamus?
1) Heat loss
2) Heat generation
Five adaptations that help animals thermoregulate
2) Circulatory adaptations
3) Cooling by evaporative heat loss
4) Behavioral responses
5) Adjusting metabolic heat production
Blood flow in the skin increases, facilitating heat loss
Blood flow in the skin decreases, lowering heat loss