Ch 40 Animal Form and Function Flashcards Preview

BIOL 172 > Ch 40 Animal Form and Function > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 40 Animal Form and Function Deck (69):
1

Tissue

A group of similar cells (and cell products) specialized for performance of a common function

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Four basic types of tissue

1) Epithelial

2) Connective

3) Muscular

4) Nervous

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Epithelium

A sheet of cells that covers an external or internal surface

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Three functions of epithelial tissue

1) Protection

2) Transport

3) Production

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Epithelial tissue produces what?

1) Hormones
2) Enzymes
3) Other cellular products

6

What does epithelial tissue lack?

A direct blood supply

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What supports epithelial tissue?

A basement layer of connective tissue

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Cuboidal epithelium

Involved in secretion and absorption

Found in lines and small ducts

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Simple columnar epithelium

Found in highly absorptive surfaces (intestine)

Cells may have microvilli extending the surface

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Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

Usually ciliated

Lining of trachea (respiratory airways)

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Stratified squamous epithelium

More than one layer continually produced by the basal layer of cells

Withstand stretching and abrasion as in the mouth

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Simple squamous epithelium

Permits diffusion of molecules

Blood vessels and lungs

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Loose connective tissue

Fixed and free cells suspended in a thick fluid

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Function of loose connective tissue

Binds epithelial tissue to underlying tissue and holds organs in place

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Fibrous connective tissue

Densely packed fibers

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Function of fibrous connective tissue

Connects muscles and bones (tendons, ligaments)

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Functions of connective tissue

1) Binding

2) Support

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Connective tissue is composed of what?

1) Cells embedded in a matrix of fibers

2) A thick fluid ground substance

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Characteristics of collagen

1) High tensile strength

2) High elastic resilience

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Collagen

Most abundant protein in the bodies of animals

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Collagen comprises much of what?

Fibers in connective tissues

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Skin

Dense, irregular arrangement of collagen

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Ligament

Collagen arranged in sheets

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Ligaments connect what?

Bone to bone

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Tendon

Collagen in a cable-like arrangement

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Tendons connect what?

Muscle to bone

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Cartilage

Closely-packed fivers in a gel-like matrix

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Where are the cells of cartilage located?

Small pockets in the matrix

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Where does cartilage occur?

1) Joints
2) Respiratory airways
3) Skeleton

30

Bone

A living, highly vascular tissue containing

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Bone contains what?

Collagen fibers deposited with calcium salts

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Osteablast cells

Deposit bone lamellae around the marrow

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Osteoclast cells

Break down bone and reabsorb the minerals

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Most bone develops from what?

Cartilage

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How does bone develop?

Osteoblasts deposit extracellular calcium throughout spaces in the cartilage

36

What extends bones during growth?

Active cartilage cells at the epiphyseal plate

37

Bone strength is proportional to what?

Its cross-section area

38

Muscle has what kind of construction?

Hierarchical

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What is bundled into muscle fibers?

Myofibril contractile units

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What are muscle fibers bundled into?

Fascicles which comprise muscles

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What role does ATP play in muscle movement?

ATP activated heads on thick myosin filaments attach to and pull thin actin filaments

42

Skeletal muscle

Striated muscle

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Smooth muscle

Slow acting, efficient involuntary muscle

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Skeletal muscle is involved in what kind of movement?

Voluntary

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Skeletal muscle is found where in the body?

Attached to bone

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Smooth muscle is found where in the body?

Intestines and blood vessels

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Cardiac muscle

Fast acting, involuntary muscle of the heart

48

Nervous tissue

Senses stimuli and transmit signals throughout the animal

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Nervous tissue contains:

1) Neurons
2) Glial cells (glia)

50

Neurons

Nerve cells

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Glial cells (glia)

Nourish, insulate, and replenish neurons

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Metabolic rate varies proportional to what?

The ratio of surface area to volume

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What kinds of animals have higher metabolism per unit of body mass?

Small animals

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Homeostasis

The maintenance of internal steady states of physiological self regulation

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What is the primary feedback that maintains homeostasis?

Negative feedback

56

Thermoregulation

The maintenance of a stable body temperature

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Why is thermoregulation necessary for life?

Enzymes have an optimum temperature under which they function best

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Most life exists between what temperatures?

0 to 40 degrees Celsius

32 to 104 degrees Fahrenheit

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Ectotherms

Organisms that do not produce metabolic heat at rates high enough to regulate their body temperature

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Endotherms

Organisms that generate enough metabolic heat to raise their temperature above that of the environment

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Poikilotherms

Organisms whose body temperature varies with its environment

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Homeotherms

Organisms whose body temperature remains relatively constant

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Is the relationship between heat source and body temperature fixed?

Nope

64

Hypothalymus

Region of the brain that controls thermoregulation

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What is triggered by the hypothalamus?

1) Heat loss

2) Heat generation

66

Five adaptations that help animals thermoregulate

1) Insulation
2) Circulatory adaptations
3) Cooling by evaporative heat loss
4) Behavioral responses
5) Adjusting metabolic heat production

67

Vasodilation

Blood flow in the skin increases, facilitating heat loss

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Vascoconstriction

Blood flow in the skin decreases, lowering heat loss

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Countercurrent heat exchange

Transfer heat between fluids flowing in opposite directions and reduce heat loss