Ch 43 Immune System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 43 Immune System Deck (44):
1

How does the immune system prevent infection by parasites?

It responds with production of immune cells or products that target foreign bodies

2

Two types of immune defense responses?

1) Innate immunity

2) Acquired immunity

3

Innate immunity

The set of defenses present from birth

Present before exposure to pathogens

4

Pathogens

Cause of disease

5

Innate immunity is comprise of what kind of responses to pathogens?

Nonspecific

6

Innate immunity includes what two things?

1) External barriers

2) Internal cellular and chemical defenses

7

Acquired immunity

Develops after exposure to microbes, toxins, and other foreign bodies

8

Acquired immunity is comprised of what kind of response to pathogens?

Specific

This means that specific pathogens are targeted

9

Barrier defenses of innate immunity

1) Skin
2) Mucous membranes
3) Secretions

10

Internal defenses of innate immunity

1) Phagocytic cells
2) Antimicrobial proteins
3) Inflammatory response
4) Natural killer cells

11

Innate immunity recognize what traits?

Traits shared by broad ranges of pathogens, using a small set of receptors

12

Is innate or acquired immunity faster?

Innate

13

Humoral response of acquired immunity

Antibodies defend against infection in body fluids

14

Cell-mediated response of acquired immunity

Cytotoxic lymphoctyes defend against infection in body cells

15

Most invertebrate recognize what two tissues?

1) Self

2) Nonself

16

Innate immunity of invertebrates includes:

1) Cuticle of the exoskeleton

2) Phagocytosis and lysosomes

3) Encapsulation

4) Antimicrobial peptides that interfere with microbe signaling or perforate cell walls

17

What is present in almost all single-celled and multicellular organisms?

Phagocytosis

18

Lysosomes contain what?

1) Digestive enzymes

2) Cellular toxins (hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid)

19

Four nonspecific (innate) immune defenses in vertebrates include:

1) Skin and mucus membranes of the respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts act as mechanical barriers

2) Saliva and tears contain lysosomes

3) Low pH of skin and digestive system

4) White blood cells that engulf pathogens in the body

20

Seven blood cell types

1) Mast cells
2) Macrophages
3) Plasma B cell
4) Memory B cell
5) Natural killer cell
6) Helper T cell
7) Cytotoxic T cell

21

What five blood cells are also lymphocytes (white blood cells)?

1) Plasma B cell
2) Memory B cell
3) Natural killer cell
4) Helper T cell
5) Cytotoxic cell

22

Macrophages consume what?

1) Pathogens

2) Dead cells

23

Macrophages are involved in what?

1) Tissue repair

2) Stimulation of lymphocytes

24

Lymphatic system serves what two purposes?

1) Collect interstitial fluid and returns it to circulation

2) `Transports and houses immune cells

25

B and T cells have binding sites that do what?

Bind specific antigens

26

Antigens

Foreign molecules

27

Lymphocytes have what kind of response to antigens?

An immune response

28

B cells secrete what?

Antibodies

29

Antibodies

Free molecules with antigen binding sites

30

Antibodies serve what purposes in the immune system?

They are signals and binding sites for other components of the immune system

31

Can antibodies disable pathogens?

Yes

32

Major histocompatibility complex

Proteins embedded in the surface of the body's cells and bind to and display proteins

33

What attracts natural killer cells and T cells?

MHC proteins that bind to and display foreign proteins

34

Cytokines

Protein hormones involved in communication within the immune system

35

Cytokines are released by most cells of the body including what?

1) Helper T cells

2) Mast cells

3) Macrophages

36

Cytokines initiate what?

The inflammation response of the immune system

37

Following injury, mast cells release what?

Cytokines including histamine

38

Histamine

Increase local blood vessel dilation

39

Fever

A systemic inflammation response that raises the body's temperature set-point

40

What stimulates a B cell to divide rapidly to produce two types of clones itself?

Binding an antigen

41

Plasma B cells

Short lived, but immediately active

42

Memory B Cells

Long lived

43

Vaccination

A nonpathogenic form of a microbe or part of a microbe is introduced into the body to stimulate active immunity

44

How is passive immunity acquired?

1) When antibodies cross the placenta from mother to fetus

2) When antibodies are passed to the infant in breast milk

3) When antibodies are injected into the body