Ch 44 Osmoregulation and Excretion Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 44 Osmoregulation and Excretion Deck (28):
1

Osmoregulation

The maintenance of internal solute concentrations and water levels within a range that allows cellular functions to continue

2

Osmosis

Water moves across a membrane from where it is more concentrate (relative to solutes) to where it is less concentrated

3

Osmotic conformers

Animals that do no actively regulate osmotic pressure of their body fluids

4

Why are most marine invertebrates osmotic conformers?

They are in a stable environment

5

Why do most invertebrates actively osmoregulate?

They are in less stable environments

6

Animals can modify behavior to limit what?

Water loss

7

In what two kind of environments is water loss a major problem?

1) Terrestrial

2) Temporary aquatic

8

How do terrestrial vertebrates regulate their water balance physiologically?

1) Consuming water

2) Consuming moist foods

3) Acquiring water through metabolism

9

Water molecules are one of the final products of what?

The electron transport chain

10

What purpose do salt glands in marine reptiles serve?

Reduce osmotic pressure by removing salt from the blood

11

What can greatly effect an animal's water balance?

The type and amount of its waste

12

What is one of the most important wastes?

Nitrogenous breakdown products of proteins and nucleic acids

13

Ammonia (NH4)

The primary nitrogenous waste of metabolism

Toxic except in very dilute form

14

Terrestrial vertebrates convert ammonia to what?

Less toxic wastes

15

Why do terrestrial vertebrates convert ammonia into les toxic wastes?

They can be concentrated in the body an excreted with less water

16

Why do sharks and rays concentrate urea in their tissues?

To increase the body's osmotic pressure and retain water from the environment

17

Metanephridia

Secrets wastes and reabsorbs solutes

Possessed by terrestrial coelomates (annelids and molluscs)

18

Insects and spiders posses what kind of excretion?

Malphigian tubule excretion (not associated with blood circulation)

19

Malpighian tubule

Hydrogen ions are actively pumped into the tubules

The increased osmotic pressure draws in salts, water, and wastes which are passed into the intestine

20

Kidney

Primary organ regulating volume and composition of body fluids in vertebrates

21

Urine is formed as a result of what?

Three physiological processes that take place across the cortex and medulla of the kidney

22

Three physiological processes that form urine

1) Filtration

2) Reabsorption

3) Secretion

23

Nephron

The basic functional unit of the kidney

24

Glomerulus

Found in the nephron of the kidney

Water and small solutes, but no proteins and red blood cell, can pass through this structure

25

Proximal tubule

Found in the nephron of the kidney

Where most of the water and glucose are reabsorbed

26

Distal tubule

Found in the nephron of the kidney

Hydrogen, potassium, and foreign molecules (including drugs) are secreted into this structure

27

What process in the kidney changes osmolarity and facilitates additional water absorption?

Transport of salts from the nephron to the interstitial fluid

28

The mammal kidney allows for the production of urine that is what?

More concentrated than the blood