Ch 29 Mosses and Early Vascular Plants Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 29 Mosses and Early Vascular Plants Deck (41):
1

Four key traits of land plants (absent in the charophytes)

1) Alternation of generations
2) Walled spores produced in sporangia
3) Multicellular gametangia
4) Apical meristems

2

Alternation of generations

Alternation between two multicellular stages: gametophyte and sporophyte

3

Gametophyte (ploidy)

Haploid

4

Gametophyte produces:

Produces haploid gametes by mitosis

5

Sporophyte (ploidy)

Diploid

6

Sporophyte produced by:

Produced by fusion of the haploid gametes

7

Sporophyte produces:

Produces haploid spores by meiosis

8

In what plant groups are both the gametophyte and sporophyte conspicuous?

In some seedless plant groups (ferns, etc.)

9

In a majority of plants, is the gametophyte stage or the sporophyte stage microscopic?

The gametophyte stage

10

Gametangia

Organs that produce gametes

11

Archegonia

Female gametangia

12

Archegonia produce:

Eggs

13

Archegonia are the site of:

Fertilization

14

Antheridia

Male gametangia

15

Antheridia produce:

Sperm

16

Vascular tissue

Transports water and nutrients

17

How can land plants be grouped (informally)?

Based on the presence or absence of vascular tissue

18

Vascular plants

Possess vascular tissue

19

Nonvascular plants

Do not possess vascular tissue

20

Are most plants vascular or nonvascular?

Vascular

21

Bryophytes

Extant nonvascular plants

22

Three types of bryophytes:

1) Mosses
2) Hornworts
3) Liverworts

23

In nonvascular plants, is the sporophyte stage or the gametophyte stage dominant?

The gametophyte stage is dominant

24

Mosses

Small, herbaceous plants common in moist forests and wetlands

25

Mosses require what for sexual reproduction?

A layer of water

26

Can mosses survive environmental extremes, such as cold and prolonged drying?

Yes

27

The moss (1)____ is attached to and dependent on the (2)___

1) Sporophyte
2) Gametophyte

28

In some mosses, the leaves surrounding the antheridia form what?

A splash cup that facilitates movement of sperm during rain to neighboring archegonia

29

Rhizoids

Long, tubular cells

30

What anchor moss gametophytes to the ground?

Rhizoids

31

Hornworts

Are often among the first colonizers of open or disturbed moist areas

32

Hornworts possess simpler ___ than mosses and liverworts

Sporophytes

33

Characteristics of vascular plants

1) Life cycles with dominant sporphyte
2) Vascular tissue (xylem and phloem)
3) Well-developed roots and leaves

34

Phyla of seedless nonvascular plants:

1) Lycophyta
2) Pterophyta

35

Phylum Lycophyta

Clubs mosses and spike mosses

36

Are club mosses and spike mosses true mosses?

No

37

Phylum Pterophyta

Ferns and horsetails

38

(1)___ are the most diverse seedless vascular plants, with more than (2)____ species

1) Ferns

2) 12,000

39

Ferns have a (1)___ and (2)___ gametophyte

1) Independent
2) Visible

40

Sori

Cluster of sporangia found on the underside of leaves

41

What is possessed by the sporophyte of ferns?

Sori