Flashcards in Ch 29 Mosses and Early Vascular Plants Deck (41):
Four key traits of land plants (absent in the charophytes)
1) Alternation of generations
2) Walled spores produced in sporangia
3) Multicellular gametangia
4) Apical meristems
Alternation of generations
Alternation between two multicellular stages: gametophyte and sporophyte
Produces haploid gametes by mitosis
Sporophyte produced by:
Produced by fusion of the haploid gametes
Produces haploid spores by meiosis
In what plant groups are both the gametophyte and sporophyte conspicuous?
In some seedless plant groups (ferns, etc.)
In a majority of plants, is the gametophyte stage or the sporophyte stage microscopic?
The gametophyte stage
Organs that produce gametes
Archegonia are the site of:
Transports water and nutrients
How can land plants be grouped (informally)?
Based on the presence or absence of vascular tissue
Possess vascular tissue
Do not possess vascular tissue
Are most plants vascular or nonvascular?
Extant nonvascular plants
Three types of bryophytes:
In nonvascular plants, is the sporophyte stage or the gametophyte stage dominant?
The gametophyte stage is dominant
Small, herbaceous plants common in moist forests and wetlands
Mosses require what for sexual reproduction?
A layer of water
Can mosses survive environmental extremes, such as cold and prolonged drying?
The moss (1)____ is attached to and dependent on the (2)___
In some mosses, the leaves surrounding the antheridia form what?
A splash cup that facilitates movement of sperm during rain to neighboring archegonia
Long, tubular cells
What anchor moss gametophytes to the ground?
Are often among the first colonizers of open or disturbed moist areas
Hornworts possess simpler ___ than mosses and liverworts
Characteristics of vascular plants
1) Life cycles with dominant sporphyte
2) Vascular tissue (xylem and phloem)
3) Well-developed roots and leaves
Phyla of seedless nonvascular plants:
Clubs mosses and spike mosses
Are club mosses and spike mosses true mosses?
Ferns and horsetails
(1)___ are the most diverse seedless vascular plants, with more than (2)____ species
Ferns have a (1)___ and (2)___ gametophyte
Cluster of sporangia found on the underside of leaves