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Flashcards in Ch. 4 Deck (132):
1

basic function of epithelial tissue

covering

2

basic function of connective tissue

support

3

basic function of muscle tissue

movement

4

basic function of nervous tissue

control

5

what are the 4 basic tissue types

epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous

6

how does epithelial tissue receive nutrients

from underlying connective tissue

7

simple epithelial

single layer of cells attached to basement membrane

8

stratified epithelia

multiple layers of cells, basal layer of cells attached to basement membrane

9

describe simple squamous epithelium

singe layer of flat cells with disc shaped nuclei

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function of simple squamous epithelium

massage of materials by passive diffusion and filtration, secretes lubricating substances in serosae

11

where in the body would simple squamous epithelium be found

renal corpuscles, alveoli of lungs, singing of heart, lymphatic vessels, lining of central boy cavity (serosae)

12

describe simple cuboidal epithelium

single layer of tubelike cells with large spherical central nuclei

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function of simple cuboidal epithelium

secretion and absorption

14

where in the body would simple cuboidal epithelium be found

kidney tubules, secretory portions of small glands, ovary surface

15

describe simple columnar epithelium

single layer of column-shaped (rectangular) cells with oval nuclei, some ciliated, and may contain goblet cells

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function of simple columnar epithelium

absorption; secretion of mucus, enzymes, and other substances, ciliated type propels mucus or reproductive cells

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where in the body would simple columnar epithelium be located

non-ciliated form: lines digestive tract, gallbladder, ducts of some glands
ciliated form: lines small bronchi, uterine tubes, and uterus

18

describe pseudostratified columnar epithelium

nuclei lie at varying heights w/in cells giving impression of stratification.

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describe stratified squamous epithelium

many layers of squamous shape cells, deeper layers appear cuboidal or columnar,

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what are the two types of stratified squamous epithelum

keratinized, and non-keratinized

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where and what are the properties of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

located on epidermis, waterproof, surface cells are dead and full of keratin

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where and what are the properties of non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

forms moist lining of body openings

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function of stratified squamous epithelium

protects undoing tissues in areas subject for abrasion

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location of stratified squamous epithelium

keratinized- forms epidermis, non-keratinized- forms lining of mucous membranes

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describe stratified cuboidal epithelium

generally 2 layers of cube-shaped cells

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function of stratified cuboidal epithelium

protection

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location of stratified cuboidal epithelium

forms ducts of mammary glands, salivary glands, and largest sweat glands

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describe stratified columnar epithelium

several layers; basal cells usually cuboidal; superficial cells elongated

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function of stratified columnar epithelium

protection and secretion

30

location of stratified columnar epithelium

rare tissue type, found in male urethra and large ducts of some glands

31

describe transitional epithelium

characteristics of stratified cuboidal and squamous cells, superficial cells dome-shaped when bladder is relaxed, squamous when full

32

function of traditional epithelium

permits dissension of urinary organs when they are filled with urine

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location of traditional epithelium

urinary bladder, ureters, proximal urethra

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endocrine glands

ductless glands that secrete directly into surrounding tissue fluid

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what do endocrine glands produce

messenger molecules called hormones

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importance of hormones

regulating body functions

37

exocrine glands

ducts carry products of exocrine gland to epithelial surface

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what ducts are associated with exocrine glands

mucus-secreting glands, sweat/oil glands, salivary glands, and liver/pancreas

39

what do goblet cells produce

mucin

40

what makes up mucus

mucin + water

41

what are goblet cells

unicellular exocrine glands

42

what are the two basic parts of multicellular exocrine glands

epithelium-walled duct, and secretory unit

43

how are multicellular exocrine glands classified

by structure of duct; simple or compound

44

how are multicellular exocrine glands categorized

by secretory unit; tubular, alveolar, and tubuloalveolar

45

what are some factors binding epithelial cells together

adhesion proteins link plasma membranes of adjacent cells, contours of adjacent cell membranes, and special cell junctions

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what is another name for tight junctions

zona occludens

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function of tight junctions and where are they found

found at apical region, some proteins in PM of adjacent cells fused, prevent certain molecules from passing b/t cells of epithelial tissue

48

what is another name for adhesive belt junctins

zonula adherens- anchoring junction

49

describe structure of adhesive belt junctions

transmembrane linker proteins attach to actin microfilaments of cytoskeleton bind adjacent cells

50

what is the main type of junction for binding cells together

desmosomes

51

describe desmosomes

scattered along abutting sides of adjacent cells, cytoplasmic side of each PM has a plaque which are joined together by linker proteins, intermediate filaments extend across cytoplasm and anchor desmosomes on opposite side of cell.

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where are desmosomes commonly found

cardiac muscle and epithelial tissue

53

function of gap junction

passageway b/t two adjacent cells, let small molecules move directly, connected by hollow cylinders of protein, function in intercellular communication

54

where is the basal lamina located

noncellular supporting sheet, boundary b/t epithelium and connective tissue

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function of basal lamina

acts s selective filter, determining which molecules from capillaries enter epithelium, acts as scaffolding along which regenerating epithelial tissue cells can migrate

56

what forms the basement membrane

basal lamina and reticular layers of underlying connective tissue

57

what are microvilli

fingerlike extension of plasma membrane that have a core of actin filaments that stiffen the microvillus

58

where are microvilli abundant

kidney tubules and small intestine

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function of microvilli

maximize surface across which small molecules enter or leave cell

60

what are cilia

whiplike, highly motile extensions of apical surface membranes

61

describe structure of cilia

contain core of microtubules held together by cross-linking and radial proteins, arrange in pairs (doublets)

62

how do cilia generate movement

when adjacent doublets grip each other w/ the motor protein dynein

63

what are the main classes of connective tissue

connective tissue proper, cartilage, bone tissue, and blood

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list some important functions of connective tissue types

form bars of skeleton, store/carry nutrients, surround blood vessels and nerves, lead fight against infection

65

list some special characteristics of connective tissue

few cells, abundant extracellular matrix (composed of ground substance and fibers) produced by cells of connective tissue, common embryonic origin: mesenchyme

66

what types of cells do areolar connective tissue contain

fat cells, WBC, and mast cells

67

list the 3 types of fibers found in connective tissue and their functions

collagen fibers- strongest; resist tension
reticular fibers- bundles of special type of cartilage
elastic fibers- contain elastin; recoil after stretching

68

what are the different types of connective tissue proper

loose connective (areolar, adipose, reticular), and dense connective (regular, irregular, elastic)

69

what are the different types of cartilage connective tissue

hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, fibrocartilage

70

what are the different types of bone connective tissue

compact bone and spongy bone

71

what types of fibers are found in the extracellular matrix of areolar connective tissue?

collagen fibers, reticular fibers, elastic fiber

72

what are the 3 main functions of areolar connective tissue?

wraps/cushions organs, holds/conveys tissue fluid, role in inflammation

73

where in the body is areolar connective tissue found

under epithelia, packages organs, surrounds capillaries

74

describe adipose tissue

closely packed adipocytes, nucleus pushed to one side of fat droplet, richly vascularized

75

function of adipose tissue

provides reserve food fuel, insulates agains heat loss, support and protects organs

76

where in the body is adipose tissue located

unde skin, around kidneys, behind eyeballs, w/in abdomen, breasts, and hypodermis

77

purpose of brown adipose tissue

produces heat, occurs in babies to aid thermoregulation, in adults: b/t scapulae, side of anterior neck, and anterior abdominal wall

78

describe reticular connective tissue

network of reticular fibers in loose ground substance

79

function of reticular connective tissue

forms soft, internal skeleton (stroma), and supports other cell types

80

where in the body is reticular connective tissue found

lymph nodes, bone marrow, and spleen

81

describe dense connective tissues

resist strong pulling forces, and have more collagen than areolar connective tissue

82

describe dense irregular connective tissue

collagen fibers are thick and irregularly arranged, contains some elastic fibers and fibroblasts

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function of dense irregular connective tissue

w/stands tension, and provides structural strength

84

where in the body is dense irregular connective tissue located

dermis of skin, submucosa of digestive tract, fibrous capsules of joints, and capsulessurroundsng organs (kidneys, bone, lymph nodes)

85

describe dense regular connective tissue

collagen fibers parallel to direction of pull, fibroblasts located b/t collagen fibers, tensile strength, poorly vascularized, forms fascia

86

function of dense regular connective tissue

attaches: muscle to bone, bone to bone, w/stands great stress in one direction

87

where in the body is dense regular connective tissue found

tendons, ligaments, aponeuroses, fascia around muscles

88

describe elastic connective tissue

elastic fibers predominate

89

function of elastic connective tissue

allows recoil after stretching

90

where in the body is elastic connective tissue located

w/in walls of arteries, in certain ligaments, and surrounding bronchial tubes

91

what are some properties all types of cartilage share

firm, flexible tissue, no blood vessels/nerves, matrix up to 80% water, cells: chondrocyte and chondroblasts

92

describe byline cartilage

glassy look, chondroblasts produce matrix, chondrocytes (mature cartilage cells) lie w/in lacunae

93

function of hyaline cartilage

supports, reinforces, resilient cushion, resists repetitive stress

94

where in the body is hyaline cartilage found

fetal skeleton, ends of long bones, costal cartilage of ribs, cartilages of nose, trachea, and larynx

95

describe elastic cartilage

similar to hyaline cartilage, more elastic fibers in matrix

96

function of elastic cartilage

maintains shape of structure, allows great flexibility

97

where in the body is elastic cartilage located

supports external ear, and epiglottis

98

describe fibrocartilage

matrix similar but less firm than hyaline cartilage, thick collagen fibers predominate

99

function of fibrocartilage

tensile strength and ability to absorb compressive shock

100

where in the body is fibrocartilage located

intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis, and discs of knee joint

101

describe bone tissue

bone matrix contains inorganic calcium salts, abundance of collagen fibers, osteocytes in lacunae

102

function of bone tissue

supports/protects organs, provides levers and attachment site for muscles, stores calcium and mother minerals, stores fat, marrow site for blood cell formation

103

describe blood tissue

atypical connective tissue, develops from mesenchyme, consists of cells surrounded by nonliving matrix, RBC and WBC in fled matrix

104

function of blood tissue

transport or respiratory gases, nutrients, and wastes

105

where in the body is blood tissue located

w/in blood vessels

106

list 3 types of lining membranes

cutaneous membrane, mucous membranes, and serous membrane

107

cutaneous membrane

skin

108

what does mesothelium line

close cavities like pleural cavity, peritoneal cavity, pericardial cavity

109

what are muscle cells called

muscle fibers

110

what do myofilaments contain

actin and myosin

111

what are 3 type of muscle tissue

skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle tissue

112

describe skeletal muscle tissue

long, cylindrical cells, multinucleate, and striations

113

function of skeletal muscle tissue

voluntary movement, manipulation of environment, facial expression

114

where are skeletal muscle muscles located

attach to bones (occasionally to skin)

115

describe cardiac muscle tissue

branching cell, striated, generally uninucleate, cells interdigitate at intercalated discs

116

function of cardiac muscle tissue

contracts to propel blood into circulatory system

117

describe smooth muscle tissue

spindle-shaped cells w/ central nuclei, arranged closely to form sheets, no striations

118

function of smooth muscle tissue

propels substances along internal passageways, and involuntary control

119

where is smooth muscle tissue located

mostly walls of hollow organs

120

describe nervous tissue

main components are brain, final cord, and nerves

121

what two types of cells that are found in nervous tissue

neurons and neuroglia

122

function of nervous tissue

transmit electrical signals from sensory receptors to effectors

123

inflammatory response

non-specific, local response, limits damage to injury site

124

immune response

takes longer to develop and very specific, destroys particular microorganisms at site of infection

125

edema

accumulation of fluid

126

what is the purpose of edema

helps dilute toxins secreted by bacteria, brings oxygen and nutrients from blood, brings antibodies of blood to fight infection

127

regeneration

replacement of destroyed tissue with same type of tissue

128

fibrosis

proliferation of scar tissue

129

what types of tissue have a good to excellent change of regeneration

epithelial tissue, bone, areolar, dense irregular, and blood-forming connective tissue

130

what types of tissue have a moderate change for regeneration

smooth muscle, dense regular connective tissue

131

what types of tissue have a weak capacity for regeneration

skeletal and cartilage

132

which types of tissue have none or almost no change of regeneration

cardiac, and nervous tissue