E5 Ch. 24 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in E5 Ch. 24 Deck (61):
1

list the important functions of the kidneys

maintain chemical consistency of blood, filter fluid from blood, send toxins, metabolic wastes, and excess water out of body

2

list the 3 nitrogenous waste products that the kidney send out of the body

urea, uric acid, creatinine

3

list the organs of the urinary system

kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra

4

where are the kidneys located

retroperitoneally (behind peritoneum), lateral to T12-L3 vertebrae

5

what is the hilum

concave surface where vessels and nerves enter and exit the kidney

6

what is the fibrous capsule of the kidney made of and its purpose

capsule of dense connective tissue surrounding kidney that inhibits spread of infections

7

where is the perirenal fat capsule located

external to renal capsule of the kidney

8

where is the renal fascia located and what does it contain

external to perirenal fat capsule; contains fat

9

describe the renal cortex

superficial region, granular appearance

10

what does the renal medulla consist of

cone-shaped renal pyramids

11

describe the renal plexus

network of autonomic fibers, offshoot of celiac plexus, supplied by sympathetic fibers from lowest thoracic splanchnic nerve and 1st lumbar splanchnic nerve

12

what is the functional unit of the kidney

nephron; over 1 million in each kidney

13

what are the mechanisms of urine production

filtration, resorption, and secretion

14

filtration

filtrate of blood leaves kidney capillaries

15

resorption

most nutrients, water, and essential ions reclaimed

16

secretion

active process of removing undesirable molecules

17

what is the nephron composed of

renal tubule and renal corpuscle

18

what is the renal corpuscle

first part of nephron

19

what is a glomerulus

tuft of fenestrated capillaries

20

what type of tissue is found in the parietal layer of the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule

simple squamous epi.

21

what does the visceral layer of the glomerular (bowman's) capsule consist of

podocytes

22

what is the filtration membrane

filter that lies b/t blood in the glomerulus and capsular space

23

what are the 3 layers that make up the filtration membrane

1. fenestrated endothelium of the capillary
2. filtration slits b/t foot processes of podocytes
3. basement membrane

24

what do the basement membrane and slit diaphragm hold back and allow passage of

hold back most proteins, allow passage of water, ions, glucose, amino acids, and urea

25

function of collecting ducts

receive urine from several nephrons, play important role in conserving body fluids

26

where is ADH secreted and what does it do

secreted from posterior pituitary; increases permeability of collecting ducts and distal convoluted tubules to water

27

list the different classes of nephrons

cortical nephrons and juxtamedullary nephrons

28

what percentage of nephrons are cortical nephrons

85%

29

what percentage of nephrons are juxtamedullary nephrons and what do they contribute to

15%; contribute to kidney's ability to concentrate urine

30

what 2 capillary beds are nephrons closely associated w/

glomeruli, peritubular capillaries in cortical nephrons or vasa recta in juxtamedullary nephrons

31

what does the glomeruli produce

filtrate that becomes urine

32

how much fluid is generated by glomeruli

1 liter of fluid every 8 minutes, 99% of which is resorbed by tubules

33

where do peritubular capillaries arise from

efferent arterioles draining cortical glomeruli

34

what are peritubular capillaries adapted for

absorption; low-pressure, porous capillaries, all molecules secreted by nephrons into urine are from peritubular capillaries

35

where does the vasa recta continue from

efferent arteriles of juxtamedullary nephrons

36

what is the vasa recta

thin-walled looping vessels descending into medulla, part of kidneys urine concentrating mechanism

37

what is the juxtaglomerular complex

an area of specialized contact b/t terminal end of the ascending limb and afferent arteriole that functions in regulating BP

38

what are granular cells

modified smooth muscle cells w/ secretory granules

39

what type of hormone do granular cells contain and what is that hormones function

the hormone renin; secreted in response to falling BP in afferent arteriole

40

what is the macula densa and its function

tall, closely packed epi cells adjacent to granular cells found at the end of nephron loop; monitor solute concentration in filtrate, signal granular cells to secrete renin, initiates renin-angiotensin mechanism

41

where are mesangial cell located and its function

located around base of glomerulus; regulate blood flow w/in glomerulus

42

function of extraglomerular mesangial cells

interact w/ macula densa and granular cells to help regulate BP

43

what type of tissue is found in the mucosa of the ureter

transitional epi

44

describe the muscularis found in the ureters

2 layers: inner longitudinal and outer circular layers

45

what is the outermost layer of the ureter

adventitia- typical connective tissue

46

where are does the urinary bladder occupy when its full and when its empty

full- spherical; expands into abdominal cavity
empty- lies entirely w/in pelvis

47

what is the urachus

closed remnant of the allantois

48

list and describe the 3 layers of the urinary bladder

1. mucosa- transitional epi
2. thick muscular layer-detrusor
3. fibrous adventitia

49

what type of tissue is found in the urethra

Proximal end-transitional epi. near bladder
mid urethra (in males)- stratified and pseudostratified columnar
distal end (near urethral opening)- strarified squamous epi.

50

describe the internal and external urethral sphincters

internal- involuntary smooth muscle
external- voluntarily inhibits urination, relaxes when one urinates

51

what are the differences in urethra length b/t males and females

females- 3-4 cm
males- 20 cm

52

what are the 3 named regions of the male urethra

prostatic, intermediate part, and spongy (penile) urethra

53

where does the prostatic urethra pass though

prostate gland

54

where does the intermediate part of urethra pass though

urogenital diaphragm

55

where does the spongy (penile) urethra pass through

through the length of the penis

56

urinary tract infections

burning sensation during micturition; more common in females

57

renal calculi

kidney stones

58

what percentage of cancer are bladder cancer and who are the more common among

3%; more common in men

59

where does kidney cancer arise from

epithelial cells of uriniferous tubules

60

name the 3 pairs of kidneys the embryo develops

pronephros, mesonephros, and metanephros

61

which of the 3 paris of kidneys developed by the embryo goes on to become the adult kidneys

metanephros, produce urine by fetal month 3, contribute to volume of amniotic fluid