E4 Ch. 21 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in E4 Ch. 21 Deck (74):
1

main function of lymphatic system

return excess tissue fluid to blood vascular system

2

function of lymphatic vessels

collect tissue fluid from loose connective tissue and carry it to great veins in the neck

3

main function of immune system

protects from foreign organisms, immunity to disease

4

list the main components associated with the immune system

lymphocytes, lymphoid tissue, and lymphoid organs

5

which direction does lymph flow

only towards the heart

6

describe lymph capillaries and their function

smallest lymph vessels, highly permeable, and are the 1st to receive lymph

7

function of collecting lymphatic vessels

collect from lymph capillaries

8

where are lymph nodes found

scattered along collection vessels

9

function of lymph trunks

collect lymph from collecting vessels

10

function of lymph ducts

empty into veins of the neck

11

what type of molecules can enter capillaries

tissue fluid, protein molecules, bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells

12

what are lacteals, where are they located, and function

specialized lymphatic capillaries, located on villi of small intestines, receive digested fats

13

what is chyle

term used for fatty lymph

14

what are the mechanisms that are used to propel lymph

bulging of skeletal muscles, pulsing of nearby arteries, tunica media of lymph vessels, not aided by heartbeat

15

function of lymph nodes

cleanse lymph of pathogens

16

how many lymph nodes does the body contain

around 500

17

what regions of the body are superficial lymph nodes located

cervical, axillary, and inguinal regions

18

list the deep lymph nodes

tracheobronchial lymph nodes, aortic lymph nodes, and iliac lymph nodes

19

fibrous capsule

surrounds lymph nodes

20

trabeculae

connective tissue strands extend inward to divide lymph node into segments

21

afferent lymphatic vessels

convex aspect of a lymph node where lymph enters

22

efferent lymphatic vessels

area where lymph exits lymph node at the hilum

23

list the major lymph trunks

5; lumbar, intestinal, bronchomediastinal, subclavian, and jugular trunks

24

where do lumbar trunks receive lymph from

lower limbs

25

where do intestinal trunks receive chyle from

receives chyle from digestive organs

26

where does the bronchomediastinal trunk collect lymph from

thoracic viscera

27

where does the subclavian trunk receive lymph from

upper limbs and thoracic wall

28

where does the jugular trunk receive lymph from

head and neck

29

list the different types of lymph ducts

cisterna chyli, thoracic, and right lymphatic duct

30

where is the cisterna chyli located

at the union of lumbar and intestinal trunks

31

where does the thoracic duct empty into

venous circulation, unction of L internal jugular and L subclavian vein, drains three-qarters of the body

32

where doe the right lymphatic duct empty into

R internal jugular and subclavian veins

33

general function of the immune system

recognized foreign molecules, destroys pathogens, lymphocytes (key cells of immune system)

34

list the lymphoid organs

lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils, aggregated lymphoid nodules, and appendix

35

when infections organisms trigger an inflammatory response which are attacked by

macrophages, then lymphocytes

36

what are antigens

any molecules inducing a response from a lymphocyte

37

what are the two main classes of lymphocytes

B and T lymphocytes

38

what do B lymphocytes become

plasma cells

39

function of plasma cells

secrete antibodies which mark cells for destruction by marcopphages

40

B lymphocytes respond primarily to what

bacteria and bacterial toxins

41

where do lymphocytes originate

in bone marrow

42

which lymphocytes travel to the thymus gland

T lymphocytes

43

which lymphocytes stay in bone marrow

B lymphocytes

44

what are some characteristics of activated lymphocytes

able to recognize unique antigen, immunocompetence, travel bloodstream (meet/bind to specific antigen), proliferate rapidly

45

both T and B lymphocytes produce clones of

effector lymphocytes, and memory cells

46

describe effector lymphocytes

respond immediately, then die

47

describe memory cells

wait until body encounters antigen again, basis of acquired immunity, prevent subsequent infections of same illness

48

what are the primary lymphoid organs

bone marrow and thymus

49

what are the secondary lymphoid organs

lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, aggregated lymphoid nodules, and appendix

50

what are lymphoid organs designed to do

gather and destroy infectious microorganisms and to store lymphocytes

51

function of thymus

secretes thymic hormones,

52

when is the thymus most active

in childhood

53

what happens to the thymus with age

functional tissue atrophies

54

what is the thymus composed of

cortex and medulla (contains thymic corpuscles)

55

how is the thymus different from other lymphoid organs

functions strictly in lymphocyte maturation, arises from epithelial tissue

56

function of lymph nodes

lymph percolates though lymph sinuses, site where most antigenic challenges occur

57

which is the largest lymphoid organ

spleen

58

what are the 2 main blood-clensing functions of the spleen

remove blood borne antigens and destruction of old/defective blood cells, site of hematopoiesis in fetus

59

what are the other functions of the spleen

destruction of antigens, phagocytosis of bacteria and worn-out RBC, WBC, and platelets, and storage of platelets

60

describe the white pulp

thick sleeves of lymphoid tissue that provides the immune function of the spleen where blood borne antigens destroyed as they activate the immune response

61

what is the red pulp composed of

venous sinuses, splenic cords, responsible for disposing of worn-out RBCs

62

what is the simplest lymphoid organ

tonsils

63

name the 4 groups of tonsils

palatine, lingual, pharyngeal, and tubal tonsils

64

describe how the structure of tonsils aid with its function

arranged in a ring to gather and remove pathogens

65

what is MALT and where is it found

mucosa associated lymphoid tissue; found in underlying lamina propria, fight invading bacteria, and generate wide variety of memory lymphocytes

66

aggregated lymphoid nodules location

peyer's patches, located in distal part of small intestine

67

chylothorax

leakage of fatty lymph into thorax

68

lymphagitis

inflammation of a lymph vessel

69

mononucleosis

viral disease caused by epstein-barr virus, attacks B lymphocytes

70

hodgkins lymphoma

cancer of lymph nodes

71

non-hodgkin's lymphoma

uncontrolled multiplication and metastasis of undifferentiated lymphocytes

72

where do lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes develop from

lymphatic sacs

73

thymus originates from

as an outgrowth of the endoderm

74

what arises from mesodermal mesenchyme

spleen, lymph nodes, and MALT