E4 Ch. 20 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in E4 Ch. 20 Deck (52):
1

list the 3 major types of blood vessels

arteries, capillaries, and veins

2

arteries

carry blood away from heart

3

arterioles

smallest arteries

4

capillaries

smallest blood vessels

5

venules

receive blood from capillaries

6

veins

receive blood from venules

7

name the 3 tunics that comprise blood vessels

tunic intima, tunica, media, and tunica externa

8

what is the tunic intima made up of

contains endothelium and subendothelial layer

9

purpose of the tunica media

sheets of smooth muscle, responsible for contraction (vasoconstriction) and relaxation (vasodilation)

10

lumen

central blood-filled space of a vessel

11

what are the different types of arteries

elastic, muscular (distributing), and arterioles,

12

describe elastic arteries

largest, diameter 2.5-1 cm, sometimes called conducting arteries

13

what structures are elastic arteries

aorta and its major branches

14

function of elastic arteries

high elastin content dampens surge of blood pressure

15

describe some features of muscular arteries

lies distal to elastic arteries, diameter 1cm- 0.3mm, thick tunica media, has internal and external elastic laminae

16

what are some features of arterioles

smallest arteries, dameter 0.3mm -10um, possess all 3 tunics,

17

what controls the diameter of arterioles

local factors in tissues, sympathetic NS

18

what is the site specific function of capillaries in the lungs

oxygen enters blood, carbon dioxide leaves

19

what is the site specific function of capillaries in the small intestines

receive digested nutrients

20

what is the site specific function of capillaries in the endocrine glands

pick up hormones

21

what is the site specific function of capillaries in the kidneys

remove of nitrogenous wastes

22

intercellular clefts

gaps of unjoined membranes, allow small molecules in and out of capillaries

23

what is the most common type of capillary

continuous capillaries, occur in most organs, least permeable

24

describe fenestrated capillaries

joined by tight junctions and desmosomes, have pores in endothelium

25

where do fenestrated capillaries mostly occur

areas where high rates of exchange occur; intestines, glomeruli of kidneys, and endocrine glands

26

list the different types of capillaries

continuous, fenestrated, and sinusoids

27

describe sinusoid capillaries

wide, leaky found in some organs, usually fenestrated, intercellular clefts wide open

28

where do sinusoid capillaries typically occur

bone marrow, and spleen

29

what are the 4 different routes in and out of capillaries (permeability)

direct diffusion, though intercellular clefts, cytoplasmic vesicles, and fenestrations

30

what is an example of low-permeability capillaries

blood brain barrier; have complete tight junctions, only vial molecules pas through

31

what molecules can pass though the blood brain barrier

oxygen, carbon dioxide, and some anesthetics

32

function of pre-capillary sphincters

regulate the flow of blood to tissue

33

what are capillary beds

network of capillaries running though tissues regulated by pre-capillary sphincters

34

describe venules

smallest veins, 8-10um, join to form veins

35

what are postcapillary venules

smallest venules

36

what are some differences found in veins when compared to arteries

larger lumen, thicker tunica externa, thinner walls w/ less elastin

37

what is the skeletal muscle pump

muscles press against thin-walled veins

38

vascular anastomoses

vessels interconnect to form this, organs receive blood from more than one arterial source

39

arterial astomoses

neighboring arteries from this, provide collateral channels

40

describe the systemic circulation

systemic arteries carry oxygenated blood away from heart to rest of body

41

what region of the vertebrae does the thoracic aorta lie

region of T5-T12

42

what region of the vertebrae does the abdominal aorta lie

ends ends at L4 right below the thoracic aorta

43

name the paired arteries that supply the head and neck

carotid arteries

44

what does the subclavian arteries branch into

vertebral arteries, thyrocervical trunk, and costocervical trunk

45

the superior and inferior vena cava returns blood from which regions of the body

superior vc- from body regions superior to diaphragm

inferior vc- returns blood from body region inferior to diaphragm

46

name the types of dural sinuses

straight, transverse, and sigmoid sinuses

47

describe the hepatic portal system

part of vascular circuit, picks up digested nutrients, delivers to liver for processing

48

where are the capillary beds of the hepatic portal system located

1st= stomach and intestines
2nd= liver sinusoids

49

name the veins associated w/ the hepatic portal system

superior/inferior mesenteric vein and splenic vein

50

what is portal systemic anastomoses

scarring and degeneration of liver

51

what is the cause and effects portal systemic anastomoses

leads to blockage of liver sinusoids which raises BP (portal hypertension), which leads to emergency anastomoses for portal blood

52

in the umbilical umbilical cord of a fetus which umbilical vessels are paired and unpaired

paired umbilical arteries, unpaired umbilical vein