E3 Ch. 13 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in E3 Ch. 13 Deck (201):
1

what is the CNS composed of

brain and spinal cord

2

rostral

toward nose

3

caudal

toward tail

4

which part of the neural tube does the brain arise from

rostral part

5

what are the 3 primary brain vesicles in 4 week old embryo

prosencephalon, mesencephalon, rhombencephalon

6

prosencephalon

forebrain

7

mesencephalon

midbrain

8

rhombencephalon

hindbrain

9

divisions of prosencephalon

telencephalon and diencephalon

10

divisions of rhombencephalon

metencephalon and myelencephalon

11

list the structures of the adult brain that develop from secondary brain vesicles

telencephalon, diencephalon, metencephalon, myelencephalon

12

structures in the telencephalon

cerebral hemispheres

13

structures in the diencephalon

thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus

14

structures in the metencephalon

bons and cerebellum

15

structures in the myelencephalon

medulla oblongata

16

what structures are included in the brain stem

midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata

17

brain classified into four regions

brain stem (midbrain, pons, and medulla), cerebellum, diencephalon, cerebral hemispheres

18

cortex

outer layer of gray matter, formed from neuronal cell bodies, located in cerebrum and cerebellum

19

what types of cells line the ventricles of the brain

ependymal cells

20

location of lateral ventricles

located in cerebral hemispheres

21

location of third ventricle

lies in diencephalon

22

what structure connects the third ventricle with the lateral ventricles

interventricular foramen

23

cerebral aqueduct

connects 3rd and 4th ventricles

24

location of fourth ventricle

lies in hindbrain, connects to central canal of the spinal cord

25

what structures are included in the brain stem

midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata

26

what are some general functions of the brain stem

passageway for all fiber tracts running b/t cerebrum and spinal cord, innervation of face and head, produces automatic behaviors necessary for survival, integrates auditory and visual reflexes

27

which structure is the most caudal level of the brain stem

medulla oblongata

28

where is the choroid plexus located

lies in roof of the fourth ventricle

29

list the 4 external landmarks of the medulla

pyramids, decussation of the pyramids, inferior cerebellar peduncles, and olive of medulla

30

what is located in the core of the medulla

reticular formation

31

what are the visceral centers of the reticular formation found in the core of the medulla

cardiac, vasomotor, medullary respiratory, and centers for hiccuping, sneezing, swallowing, and coughing

32

which structure is considered the "bridge" b/t the midbrain and medulla oblongata

the pons

33

the pons contain the nuclei of which cranial nerves

V-trigeminal, VI- abducens, VII-facial

34

what does the pons contain

motor tracts (coming from cerebral cortex), and pontine nuclei

35

what is the pontine nuclei and its function

connects portions of cerebral cortex and cerebellum, sends axons to cerebellum though middle cerebellar peduncles

36

where is the midbrain located

b/t the diencephalon and pons

37

cerebral aqueduct

central cavity of midbrain

38

what is periaqueductal gray matter and what is it involved in

surrounds cerebral aqueduct, involved in fight or flight reaction and mediates response to visceral pain

39

what is the corpora quadrigemina and what are its divisions

larget nuclei located in midbrain, divided into superior and inferior colliculi

40

function of superior colliculi

nuclei that act in visual reflexes

41

inferior colliculi

nuclei that act in reflexive response to sound

42

what is embedded in the white matter of the midbrain

2 pigmented nuclei: substantia nigra and red nucleus

43

substantia nigra

neuronal cell bodies containing melanin, functionally linked to basal nuclei

44

red nucleus

lies deep to substantia nigra, largest nucleus of the reticular formation

45

function of cerebellum

smoothing and coordinating body movements, helps maintain equilibrium

46

subdivisions of cerebellar hemispheres

anterior lobe, posterior lobe, and flocculonodular lobe (tiny)

47

in order to coordinate body movements, the cerebellar cortex receives what 3types of information

info on equilibrium, info on current movements of limbs, neck, and trunk, and info from cerebral cortex

48

process in which cerebellum coordinates movement

1. receives info on movement from motor cortex of cerebrum
2. compares intended movement w/ body position
3. sends instructions back to cerebral cortex to continuously adjust/fine-tune motor commands

49

what are some higher cognitive functions of the cerebellum

learning new motor skill, participates in cognition (language, problem solving, task planning)

50

what are cerebellar peduncles

thick tracts connecting cerebellum to brain stem

51

what are the different types of cerebellar peduncles

superior, middle, and inferior cerebellar peduncles

52

diencephalon

forms central core of forebrain, surrounded by cerebral hemispheres, border third ventricle, primarily composed of gray matter

53

what are the 3 paired structures that comprise the diencephalon

thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus

54

function of thalamus

relay stations for incoming sensory message, sends axons to regions of the cerebral cortex, "gateway" to cerebral cortex

55

location of hypothalamus

lies b/t optic chiasm and mammillary bodies

56

function of hypothalamus

main visceral control center of body; controls ANS, emotional responses, regulation body temp, hunger/ thirst, behavior, sleep-wake cycles, endocrine system, formation of memory

57

epithalamus

"roof" of third ventricle, consist of tiny group of nuclei, includes pineal gland (pineal body)

58

pineal gland

secretes hormone melatonin, under influence of hypothalamus, aids in control of carcadian rhythm

59

fissures

deep grooves that separate major regions of brain

60

transverse fissure

separates cerebrum and cerebellum

61

longitudinal fissure

separates cerebral hemispheres

62

sulci

grooves on surface of cerebral hemispheres

63

gyri

twisted ridges b/t sulci

64

what does the parieto-occipital sulcus separate

occipital from parietal lobe

65

list the lobes of the cerebral cortex

frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, and insula

66

what does the cerebral cortex enable us to do

home of conscious mind; aware of ourselves and sensations, initiate/control voluntary movements, communicate, remember, and understand

67

what are the 3 general kinds of functional areas in the cerebral cortex

sensory, association, and motor areas

68

multimodal association areas of cerebrum

receive and integrate input from multiple regions of cerebral cortex

69

motor cortex of cerebrum

plans and initiates voluntary motor functions

70

describe cerebral cortex info. processing

1. sensory info received by primary sensory cortex
2. info relayed to sensory association area
3. multimodal association area receive input in parallel from sensory areas
4. motor plan enacted

71

what are sensory areas

cortical areas involved in conscious awareness of sensation

72

where area sensory areas located

parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes- distinct regions of each lobe interpret each of the major senses

73

where are primary somatosensory cortex located

along the postcentral gyrus

74

somatosensory cortex involved n

conscious awareness of general somatic senses, spatial discrimination (precisely locates stimulus, certain regions more adept in distinguishing precise stimuli)

75

sensory homunculus

body map of the sensory cortex

76

somatosensory assoication cortex location

posterior to primary somatosensory cortex

77

what does the somatosensory association cortex do

integrates different sensory inputs (touch, pressure), draws upon stored memories of past sensory experiences (e.g. recognize keys/coins in pocket w/out looking at them)

78

primary visual cortex location

deep w/in calcarine sulcus (medial part of occipital lobe)

79

function of primary visual cortex

receives visual info that originates on retina, exhibits contralateral function

80

visual association area function

surrounds primary visual area, continues processing of visual info. (analyze color, form, movement)

81

function of primary auditory cortex

conscious awareness of sound, waves excite receptors in inner ear, impulses trasmitted to primary auditory cortex

82

location of primary auditory cortex

superior edge of temporal lobe

83

location of auditory association area

posterior to primary auditory cortex

84

function of auditory areas

permits evaluation of different sounds, processes auditory stimuli serially and in parallel

85

wernicke's area

involved in recognizing and understanding speech

86

function of vestibular cortex

conscious awareness of sense of balance

87

location of vestibular cortex

posterior part of insula, deep to the lateral sulcus

88

function of gustatory cortex

conscious awareness of taste stimuli

89

location of gustatory cortex

"roof" of lateral sulcus

90

location of olfactory cortex

medial aspect of cerebrum located in piriform lobe

91

function of olfactory cortex

olfactory nerves transmit impulses to olfactory cortex, provides conscious awareness of smells

92

what is the olfactory cortex part of

rhinencephalon- "nose brain"

93

what is included in the rhinencephalon "nose brain"

piriform lobe, olfactory tracts, and olfactory bulbs

94

function of rhinencephalon

connects brain to limbic system, explains why smell triggers emotions, involved w/ consciously identifying and recalling specific smells

95

where are visceral sensory areas located and what types of sensory input are received

w/in lateral sulcus on insula lobe, receives pain, pressure, and hunger

96

what are motor areas

cortical areas controlling motor functions

97

list the different motor areas

premotor cortex, primary motor cortex, frontal eye field, Broca's area

98

location of premotor cortex

anterior to precentral gyrus

99

function of premotor cortex

controls more complex movements, receives processed sensory info. (visual, auditory, general somatic sensory), controls voluntary actions dependent on sensory feedback, planning movements

100

function of primary motor cortex

controls motor functions

101

location of primary motor cortex

precentral gyrus

102

pyramidal cells

large neurons of primary motor cortex, axons cross over to opposite side of brain (contralateral), specific types control specific areas of body

103

corticospinal tracts of motor cortex

descend though brain stem and spinal cord, axons signal motor neurons to control skilled movements

104

somatotopy

body is represented spatially in the primary motor cortex

105

where does the frontal eye field located

lies anterior to premotor cortex

106

where is Broca's area located

left cerebral hemisphere

107

function of Broca's area

manages speech production, connected to language comprehension areas in posterior association area

108

what does the corresponding region to Broca's in the right cerebral hemisphere control

emotional overtones to spoken words

109

what are multimodal association areas

large areas of cerebral cortex that receive sensory input from multiple sensory modalities and sensory association areas and makes associations b/t kinds of sensory info.

110

what are the 3 multimodal association areas

posterior, anterior, and limbic association areas

111

where is the posterior association area located

at interface of visual, auditory, and somatosensory association areas

112

function of posterior association area

integrates sensory info into unified perception, allows awareness of spatial location of body ("body sense"), related to language comprehension and speech

113

describe the location and function of the dorsal stream of the posterior association area

extends to postcentral gyrus, perceives info about spatial relationships, "where" pathway" (location of objects)

114

describe the location and function of the ventral stream of the posterior association area

pases info into inferior part of temporal lobe, responsible for recognizing objects, words, and faces, "what" pathway (identifies objects)

115

describe the 2 ways auditory stimuli is processed

from auditory association areas though multimodal association areas

parietal lobe and lateral part of frontal lobe- evaluate location of sound ("where" pathway)

anterior region of temporal lobe and inferior region of frontal lobe- process sound identification ("what" pathway)

116

where is wernicke's area found

left cerebral cortex in posterior association areas

117

function of wernicke's area

speech comprehension, coordination of auditory and visual aspects of language, initiation of word articulation, recognition of sound sequence

118

function of corresponding wernicke's area in the right hemisphere

creative interpretation of words, emotional overtones of speech

119

anterior association areas

large region of frontal lobe (prefrontal cortex), receives info from posterior association area, integrates info w/ past experience, initiates and plans motor movements, and has links to limbic system

120

what are the more complex functions of anterior association areas

thinking, perceiving, intentionally remembering, processing abstract ideas, impulse control, humor, empathy, stores info for less than 30 sec. etc.

121

function of anterior pole of frontal cortex

active in solving most complex problems, emotions, cognition at anterior part of frontal lobe

122

what are the 3 working memory areas of anterior association areas

visual working memory, auditory working memory, and executive area

123

where is the limbic association area located

medial side of frontal lobe

124

function of limbic association areas

memory, emotions, integrates sensory and motor behaviors, aids in formation of memory, and processes emotions

125

what does the left cerebral hemisphere control

language abilities, math, and logic

126

what does the right cerebral hemisphere control

visual-spatial skills, reading facial expressions, intuition, emotion, artistic and musical skills

127

what are the different types of tracts found in the white matter

commissures, association fibers, projection fibers

128

what are commissures tracts composed of

commissural fibers

129

function of commissure tracts

allows communication b/t cerebral hemispheres

130

what is the larges commissure tract

corpus callosum

131

function of association fiber tracts

connect different part of the same hemisphere

132

parts of wernike's and Broca's areas are connected by what type of tracts

association fibers

133

which way do projection fiber tracts run

vertically

134

where do projection fibers descend from and ascend to

descend from cerebral cortex and ascend to cortex from lower regions

135

describe internal capsule of projection tracts

projection fibers form a compact bundle, passes b/t the thalamus and basal nuclei

136

describe the corona radiata of projection tracts

superior to internal capsule, fibers run to and from cerebral cortex

137

what does the deep gray matter of the cerebrum consist of

basal nuclei (basal ganglia), basal forebrain nuclei, claustrum

138

basal nuclei (basal ganglia)

involved in motor control

139

basal forebrain nuclei

associated w/ memory

140

claustrum

nucleus of unknown function

141

amygdaloid body

located in cerebrum but is considered part of limbic system

142

what is the basal nuclei formed from

group of nuclei deep w/in the cerebral white matter, formed from caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus

143

basal ganglia

complex neural calculaors, cooperate w/ cerebral cortex in controlling movement, receive input from many cortical areas

144

substantia nigra

influences basal ganglia

145

function of basal nuclei

start, stop, and regulate intensity of voluntary movements, select appropriate muscles for a task and inhibit others, estimate passage of time.

146

what structures make up the basal forebrain nuclei

septum, diagonal band of Broca, horizontal band of broca, basal nucleus of Meynert

147

location of basal forebrain nuclei

anterior and dorsal to hypothalamus

148

function of forebrain nuclei

arousal, learning, memory, motor control

149

degeneration of basal forebrain nuclei is associated to what disease

alzheimer's disease

150

function of cerebellum

process input from cerebral motor cortex, propriceptors, and visual and equilibrium pathway, smooth, coordinated skeletal muscle movements, balance and posture

151

function of thalamus portion of diencephalon

relays sensory impulses to cerebral cortex for interpretation, relays impulses b/t cerebral cortex and subcortical motor centers including basal nuclei (ganglia) and cerebellum, memory processing

152

function of hypothalamus portion of diencephalon

autonomic (involuntary) NS, regulates body temp, food intake, water balance, thirst, biolobical rhythms/drves, hormonal output, acts as endocrine organ producing ADH and oxytocin

153

function of cortical gray matter found in cerebral hemispheres

localizes/interpret sensory inputs, controls voluntary/skilled skeletal muscle activity, functions in intellectual and emotional processing

154

function of limbic system

includes cerebral and diencephalon structures (cingulate gyrus, hippocampal formation, amygdaloid body, hypothalamus, and anterior thalamic nuclei), mediates emotional response, forms/retrieves memories

155

function of medulla oblongata

relays sensory info to cerebellum though inferior olivary nuclei, contains visceral nuclei controlling HR, blood vessel diameter, respiratory rate, vomiting, coughing etc.

156

function of pons

pontine nuclei relay info from cerebrum to cerebellum, contains reticular formation nuclei

157

the medulla oblongata contains the nuclei of which cranial nerves

VIII-X and XII

158

the pons contains the nuclei of which cranial nerves

V-VII

159

function of midbrain

contains subcortical motor centers, and visual and auditory reflex centers

160

the midbrain contains the nuclei of which cranial nerves

III and IV

161

function of reticular formation

maintains cerebral cortical alertness (reticular activating system), filters out repetitive stimuli, helps regulate skeletal and visceral muscle activity and modulate pain

162

location of limbic system

medial aspect of cerebral hemispheres, w/in diencephalon

163

what is the limbic system composed of

septal nuclei, cingulate gyrus, and hippocampal formation, part of amygdaloid body

164

fornix

along w/ other tracts link limbic system together

165

cingulate gyrus

limbic system; allows us to shift b/t thoughts, interprets pain as unpleasant

166

what three columns does the reticular formation make

midline raphe nuclei, medial nuclear group, and lateral nuclear group

167

reticular activating system (RAS)

maintain consciousness and alertness, functions in sleep and arousal from sleep, malfunctions in people w/ narcolepsy

168

what structures protect the brain

skull, meninges, cerebrospinal fluid, and blood brain barrier

169

functions of the meninges

cover/protect CNS, enclose and protect vessels that supply CNS, contains CSF b/t pia and arachnoid maters

170

what two layers compose the dura mater

periosteal layer, and meningeal layer

171

arachnoid villi

project through dura mater, allow CSF to pass into dural blood sinuses

172

where is CSF formed

choroid plexuses in brain ventricle

173

where is the choroid plexus located

all 4 ventricles

174

what is the choroid plexus composed of

ependymal cells and capillaries

175

where does CSF arise from and how much is produced a day and how much is present at one time

arises from blood; 500 ml produced/day, only 100-160 ml present at any one time

176

function of blood-brain barrier

prevents most blood borne toxins from entering brain, allows passage of nutrients, oxygen, alcohol, nicotine, and anesthetics

177

function of spinal cord

attachment of spinal nerves, provide two-way conduction pathway, major center for reflexes

178

location of spinal chord

runs though vertebral canal, extends from foramen magnum to L1 or L2

179

SS of gray mater

somatic sensory; interneurons receiving input from sensory neurons

180

VS of gray mater

visceral sensory; interneurons receiving input from visceral sensory neurons

181

VM of gray mater

visceral motor; (autonomic) neurons

182

SM of gray mater

somatic motor neurons

183

what structures protect spinal cord

vertebrae, meninges, and CSF

184

function of CSF

liquid cushion for spinal cord and brain, nourishes brain and spinal cord, removes wastes, carries chemical signals b/t parts of CNS

185

ascending pathways of CNS

carry info to more rostral areas of CNS

186

descending pathways of CNS

carry info to more caudal regions of CNS

187

what type of signal do ascending pathways carry

general somatic sensory impulses

188

what are the 4 main types of ascending pathways

dorsal column, spinothalamic, posterior spinocerebellar, anterior spinocerebellar pathway

189

what types of signals do descending pathways carry

motor pathways

190

function of descending pathways

deliver motor instructions from brain to spinal cord

191

what are the 2 groups of descending pathways

pyramidal (corticospinal) tracts and other motor pathways

192

list the other motor pathways

tectospinal, vestibulospinal, rubrospinal, reticulospinal tracts

193

paralysis

loss of motor function

194

parasthesia

loss of sensation

195

paraplegia

injury to spinal cord b/t T1 and L2

196

quadriplegia

injury to spinal cord in cervical region, paralysis of all 4 limbs

197

cerebrovascular accident (stroke)

degenerative brain disease; blockage or interruption of blood flow to a brain region

198

alzheimer's disease

prgressive degenerative disease leading to dementias

199

anencephaly

neural tube defect; cerebrum and cerebellum are absent

200

spina bifida

neural tube defect; absence of vertebral lamina

201

cerebral palsy

voluntary muscles are poorly controlled, results from damage to the motor cortex