E5 Ch. 23 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in E5 Ch. 23 Deck (133):
1

what 2 groups are the organs of the digestive system divided into

alimentary canal and accessory digestive organs

2

list the organs that belong to the alimentary canal

mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine

3

list the accessory digestive organs

teeth, tongue, gallbladder, salivary glands, liver, and pancreas

4

how are accessory organs and alimentary canals connected

via ducts

5

list the 4 lines that divide the abdominal wall

midclavicular (vertical lines), subcostal plane (superior horizontal), transtubercular plane (inferior horizontal

6

peritoneum

serious membrane

7

visceral peritoneum

surrounds digestive organs

8

parietal peritoneum

lines body wall

9

peritoneal cavity

slitlike potential space

10

what is a mesentery and its function

double layer of peritoneum; holds organs in place, fat storage, provide route for circulatory vessels/nerves

11

name the structures found in the ventral mesenteries

falciform ligament and lesser omentum

12

function of falciform ligament

binds anterior part of liver to anterior abdominal wall

13

function of lesser omentum

attaches liver to lesser curvature of stomach

14

list the dorsal mesenteries

greater omentum, transverse mesocolon, and sigmoid mesocolon

15

function of greater omentum

connects greater curvature of stomach to posterior abdominal wall, "fatty apron"

16

function of transverse mesocolon

holds transverse colon in place

17

function of sigmoid mesocolon

connects sigmoid colon to posterior pelvic wall

18

retroperitoneal organs

behind the peritoneum

19

peritoneal organs

digestive organs that keep their mesentery

20

where does ingestion occur

mouth

21

propulsion

movement of food

22

peristalsis

major means of propulsion; adjacent segments of alimentary canal relax and contract

23

mechanical breakdown

preps food for chemical digestion; chewing, churning food in stomach, and segmentation

24

what is segmentation

rhythmic local constrictions of intestine; mixes food w/ digestive juices

25

what is chemical digestion and where does it occur

complex molecules broken down to chemical components; mouth, stomach, and small intestine

26

absorption

transport of digested nutrients

27

defecation

elimination of indigestible substances as feces

28

list the 4 layers of the alimentary canal

mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa

29

what are the sublayers of the mucosa

epithelium, lamina propria, muscularis mucosae

30

what structures are found in the submucosa

blood and lymphatic vessels, and nerve fibers

31

name the 2 layers that make up the muscularis externa

circular muscularis (inner layer) and longitudinal muscularis (outer layer)

32

what is the serosa

the visceral peritoneum

33

where is smooth muscle found

walls of viscera

34

describe the longitudinal layer

parallell to long axis of organ

35

describe the circular layer

deeper layer, fibers run around circumference of organ

36

what is the mechanism of contraction with smooth muscles

myofilaments operate by interaction w/ cytoskeleton, dense bodies correspond to Z-discs of skeletal muscle; sliding myofilaments shorten muscle cells by pulling on ctoskeleton

37

what is the rate of contraction with smooth muscles

contraction slow and sustained (30X longer to contract/relax), resistant to fatigue, low energy requirements

38

innervation of smooth muscles via

ANS

39

single-unit innervation

few fibers per sheet innervated; sheet of smooth muscle contracts as a unit

40

multiunit innervation

each smooth muscle cell innervated (e.g. iris of eye and arrector pili muscles)

41

where is the myenteric nerve plexus lie and what does it control

leis b/t circular and longitudinal muscularis; controls peristalsis and segmentation

42

where is the submucosal nerve plexus located and function

lies in submucosa; signals glands to secrete

43

list the boundaries of the mouth (oral cavity)

lips (anteriorly), cheeks (laterally), palate (superiorly), tongue (inferiorly), fauces of oropharynx (posteriorly)

44

what type of cells are found in the mucosal layer of the oral cavity

stratified squamous epi

45

what muscles are the lips and cheeks formed from

orbicularis oris and buccinator

46

function of labial fernulum

connects lips to gum

47

name the boundaries of the fauces

palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches

48

function of the tongue

grips food, repositions, helps form some consonants

49

function of the lingual frenulum

secures tongue to floor of mouth

50

where are intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue located

intrinsic muscles- w/in tongue

extrinsic muscles-external to tongue

51

list the types of tongue papillae

filiform (no taste buds), fungiform, and vallet papillae

52

what is the sulcus terminalis

marks border b/t mouth and pharynx

53

where does the posterior 1/3 of the tongue lie

in oropharynx; lined w/ lingual tonsil

54

how many deciduous teeth do we have and when do they appear

20; 6 months of age

55

how many permanent teeth de we have and when do they appear

32, most erupt by end of adolescence

56

what is the dental formula

shorthand; formula for adult dentition indicates number and position of teeth (e.g. 2K, 1C, 2P, 3M

57

what type of innervation is in the upper teeth

superior alveolar nerves branching from maxillary division of CN V

58

what type of innervation is in the lower teeth

inferior alveolar nerves branching from mandibular branch of CN V

59

crown

exposed surface of tooth

60

root

in tooth socket

61

what is the outer layer of the tooth

enamel

62

dentin

underlies enamel

63

pulp cavity

center of tooth

64

what type of cells are found in parotid glands

only serious cells

65

where are submandibular glands located

lie along medial surface of mandible

66

where are sublingual glands located and why type of cells do they contain

lie in floor or oral cavity, contain primarily mucous cells

67

what type of epi are found in the oropharynx and laryngophary x

stratified squamous epi

68

function of the cardiac sphincter

closes lumen to prevent stomach acid from entering esophagus

69

what type of tissue is found in the esophagus

stratified squamous epi

70

what type of muscle is found in the esophagus

mixture of skeletal and smooth (middle 1/3), smooth (inferior 1/3)

71

the stomach is the site for what

where food is churned into chyme

72

what type of chemical does the stomach secret

pepsin; beings protein digestion

73

how long does food typically remain in the stomach

approximately 4 hours

74

name the 3 muscularis layers of the stomach

circular, longitudinal, and oblique layers

75

what type of tissue is found in the stomach

simple columnar epi

76

what is found in the mucosa of the stomach

gastric pits; gastric glands deep to gastric pits

77

list the gastric glands of the fundus and body regions of the stomach

mucous neck cells, parietal (oxyntic) cells, and chief (zymogenic) cells

78

what do mucous neck cells secrete

special mucus

79

what do parietal (oxyntic) cells secrete

hydrochloric acid and gastric intrinsic factor

80

wha do chief (zymogenic) cells secrete

pepsinogen; activated into pepsin when encounters acid in gastric glands

81

what organ is the longest portion of the alimentary canal

small intestine

82

what are the 3 subdivisions of the small intestine

duodenum, jejunum, and ileum

83

what type of innervations are in the small intestine

parasympathetic fibers from vagus nerves, sympathetic from thoracic splanchnic nerves

84

what chemicals does the duodenum receive

digestive enzymes and bile

85

what structures enter the duodenum

main pancreatic and common bile duct; sphincters control entry of bile and pancreatic juices

86

what are some modifications for absorption found in the small intestine

circular folds, billi, and microvilli

87

what are circular folds

transverse ridges of mucosa and submucosa

88

what are villi

fingerlike projections of mucosa, covered w/ simple columnar epi

89

what are microvilli

further increase surface area for absorption

90

function of absorptive enterocytes

uptake digested nutrients

91

function of goblet cells

secrete mucus that lubricates chyme

92

function of enteroendocrine cells

secrete hormones

93

intestinal crypts

epi cells secrete intestinal juice

94

functions of the large intestine

small amount of digestion by bacteria, main function- absorb water and electrolytes

95

list the subdivisions of the large intestine

cecum, appendix, colon, rectum, anal canal

96

list the special features found on the large intestine

teniae coli, haustra, epiploic appendages

97

teniae coli

thickening of longitudinal muscularis

98

haustra

puckering created by teniae coli

99

epiploic appendages

fat-filled pouches of visceral peritoneum

100

cecum

blind pouch, beginning of large intestine

101

what does the appendix contain and function

contains lymphoid tissue; neutralizes pathogens

102

what is the anal canal and what type of tissue lines it

last subdivision of large intestine, lines w/ stratified squamous epi

103

name the artery that supplies the first half of the large intestine

superior mesenteric artery

104

innervations of the first half of large intestine

sympathetic- superior mesenteric and celiac ganglia

parasympathetic- vagus nerve

105

name the artery that supplies the distal half of large intestine

inferior mesenteric artery

106

innervations of the distal half of large intestine

sympathetic- inferior mesenteric and hypogastric plexuses

parasympathetic- pelvic splanchnic nerves

107

type of tissue found in large intestine

simple columnar epithelial tissue, becomes stratified squamous epi at anal canal

108

what is the largest gland in the body

liver

109

what is the digestive function the liver

bile production

110

hepatocyte

functional cells of liver

111

what is the portal triad of the liver composed of

bile duct tributary, branch of hepatic portal vein, branch of hepatic artery

112

function of hepatic macrophages

destroy bacteria

113

function of gallbladder

stores and concentrates bile which emulsifies fats

114

where does the gallbladder expel bile into

duodenum

115

where and when is cholecystokinin released

from enteroendocrine cells in response to fatty chyme

116

what type of functions does the pancreas carry out

both exocrine and endocrine functions

117

what is the endocrine function of the pancreas

produce insulin and glucagon, regulates blood sugar

118

what is the exocrine function of the pancreas

produces most enzymes that digest food in small intestine

119

what structures form the hepatopancreatic ampulla

area where main pancreatic duct joints bile duct; empties into duodenum

120

where does the pancreas receives arterial supply from

hepatic, splenic, and superior mesenteric arteries

121

what are the pancreas exocrine functions

acinar cells make, store, and secrete pancreatic enzymes which are activated in the duodenum

122

what are peptic ulcers

erosions of the mucosa of a region of the alimentary canal

123

where do gastric ulcers occur

in pyloric region of stomach

124

where do duodenal ulcers occur

in duodenum of small intestine

125

name and describe the pathogen that causes peptic ulcers

Helicobacter pylori; acid-resistant, binds to gastric epi, induces over secretion of acid and inflammation

126

what are the 2 types of intestinal obstructions

mechanical and nonmechanical

127

list the types of mechanical obstructions

adhesions, tumors, or foreign objects

128

what are some causes of non-mechanical obstructions

halt in peristalsis; trauma, intestines touched during surgery

129

what is fnflammatory bowel disease and list the 2 types

inflammation of intestinal wall; Crohn's disease and Ulceratice colitis

130

list the major types of viral hepatitis and what are some general symptoms

A, B, C and G; jundice and flulike symptoms

131

describe how cystic fibrosis affects the pancreas

pancreatic ducts become blocked w/ mucus, which prevent pancreatic juices from entering small intestine, leads to malabsorption of fats and other nutrients

132

during embryonic development, when is the alimentary canal formed and what does it enclose

week 3, encloses tubular portion of yolk sac

133

what is the vitelline duct during embryonic development

landmark dividing into 3 regions: foregut, midgut, an hindgut