E5 Ch. 17 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in E5 Ch. 17 Deck (104):
1

define endocrinology

study of hormones and endocrine glands

2

list the various pure endocrine organs

pituitary, pineal gland, thyroid and parathyroid glands, adrenal glands

3

list the organs containing large portion of endocrine cells

pancreas, thymus, gonads, and hypothalamus

4

list the various organs that contain some endocrine cells

heart, digestive tract, kidneys, and skin

5

what type of molecules are secreted by the endocrine system

hormones

6

what are the two classes of hormones

amino acid-based and steroids (derived from cholesterol)

7

what is the basic action of hormones

circulate throughout body in blood vessels influencing only target cells (different effects on different target cells)

8

list the different types of stimuli that trigger secretion of hormones

humoral, neural, and hormonal

9

describe humoral hormone secretions

secretion in direct response to changing ion or nutrient levels in blood

10

describe neural hormone secrtion

sympathetic nerve fibers stimulate cells in adrenal medulla, induces release of epinephrine and norepinephrine

11

describe hormonal hormone secretion

stimuli received from other glands, certain hormones signal secretion of other hormones

12

what controls hormone secretion

feedback loops

13

how many hormones does the pituitary gland secrete

9 major hormones

14

where is the pituitary gland located

attached to hypothalamus by infundibulum

15

what are the 2 basic divisions of the pituitary gland

anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and posterior lobe (neurohypophysis)

16

what are the 3 major division of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland

pars distalis, pars intermedia, and pars tuberalis

17

what are the 2 major divisions of the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland

pars nervosa and infundibulum

18

describe the pars distalis

largest of anterior lobe, contain 5 different endocrine cells, makes/secretes 7 different hormones, tropic hormones regulate hormone secretion by other glands (TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH)

19

what hormones are secreted by the anterior lobe

MSH, FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH, PRL, GH

20

what produces the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and what does it signal

produced by thyrotropic cells; signals thyroid gland to secrete thyroid hormone

21

what does the adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulate

adrenal cortex to secrete hormones that help cope w/ stress

22

what produces gonadotropins

gonadotropic cells; FSH and LH

23

what produces growth hormones (GH) and what does it stimulate

produced by somatotropic cells, stimulates body growth by stimulating increased protein production and growth of epiphyseal plates, directly/indirectly by liver's secretion of insulin-like growth factor-1

24

function of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)

in humans, functions in appetite suppression

25

what produces prolactin, and its function

produced by prolactin cells, targets milk-producing glands in breast- stimulates milk production

26

what are the 5 cell types of the anterior lobe classified as

acidophils, basophils, and chromophobes

27

how does the hypothalamus control anterior lobe hormones

exerts control by secreting releasing hormones (prompt anterior lobe to release hormones), and inhibiting hormones (turn off secretion of anterior lobe hormones)

28

describe how releasing hormones are secreted

like neurotransmitters; enter primary capillary plexus to hypophyseal portal veins to secondary capillary plexus, hormones secreted y anterior lobe enter general circulation and travel to target organs

29

what makes up the hypothalamohypophyseal tract

axons of the posterior lobe, arise from neuronal cell bodies in the hypothalamus

30

what hormones does the posterior lobe make an release

doesn't make hormones just stores and releases hormones made in hypothalamus; antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin

31

where is ADH made and its target

made in supraoptic nucleus, targets kidneys to resorb water

32

where is oxytocin produced and function

produced in paraventricular nucleus; induces smooth muscle contraction of reproductive organs, ejects milk during breast-feeding, and signals contraction of uterus during birth

33

where is the thyroid gland located and what is it composed of

located in anterior neck (largest purely endocrine gland), composed of follicles and areolar CT

34

what hormones does the thyroid gland produce

thyroid hormone (TH) and calcitonin

35

where are the parathyroid glands located

on posterior surface of thyroid gland

36

list the types of endocrine cells the parathyroid glands contain

chief cells, and oxyphil cells

37

function of chief cells

produce parathyroid hormone (PTH), increase blood concentration of Ca2+ (calcium)

38

function of oxyphil cells

function unknown

39

describe the adrenal (suprarenal) glands

pyramid-shaped, located on superior surface of each kidney, supplies ~ 60 suprarenal arteries, nerve supply almost exclusively sympathetic fibers

40

describe the function of the adrenal medulla

cluster of neurons, derived from neural crest, part of the sympathetic NS

41

describe the adrenal cortex

forms bulk of gland, derived from somatic mesoderm

42

what do all adrenal hormones do

help body cope w/ danger, terror, or stress

43

what are medullary chromaffin cells

modified postganglionic sympathetic neurons that secrete amine hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine

44

function of epinephrine, norepinephrine and where are they stored

enhance "flight or fight" response, hormones stored in secretory vesicles

45

what does the adrenal cortex secrete

lipid-based steroid hormones

46

list the layers that comprise the adrenal cortex

zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, and zona reticularis

47

how are the cells of the zona glomerulosa arranged

in spherical clusters

48

how are the cells of the zona fasciculata arranged

parallel cords; contains lipid droplets

49

how are the cells of the zona reticularis arranged

branching network

50

what class of hormones does the adrenal cortex secrete list them

hormones are corticosteriods; mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids

51

describe aldosterone, where are they secreted and why

mineralocorticoid; secreted by zona glomerulos, secreted in response to decline in blood volume/ BP, is the terminal hormone of the renin-angiotensin mechanism

52

what is the main type of glucocorticoids, where are they secreted and what do they do

cortisol main type; secreted by zona fasciculata and zona reticularis, helps body deal w/ stressful situations

53

where is the pineal gland located

located on roof of diencephaon

54

how are pinealocytes arranged

in spherical clusters and branching cords

55

"pineal sand"

radiopaque; used as landmark to identify other brain structures in X-ray films

56

what do pinealocytes secrete

melatonin; a hormone that regulates circadian rhythms

57

where is the pancreas located

posterior abdominal call

58

name the exocrine and endocrine cells of the pancreas

exocrine- acinar cells
endocrine- pancreatic islets

59

what do acinar cells secrete

digestive enzymes

60

list the main endocrine cells types of the pancreas

alpha and beta

61

what do alpha cells secrete and function

secrete glucagon; signal liver to release glucose from glycogen, raise blood sugar

62

what do beta cells secrete and function

secrete insulin; signal most body cells to take up glucose from blood, promote storage of glucose as glycogen in liver, lower blood sugar

63

list the 2 cell types that are found in pancreatic islets

delta and F (PP) cells

64

what do delta cells secrete and function

secrete somatostatin; inhibit secretion of insulin and glucagon

65

what do F (PP) cells secrete and function

secrete pancreatic polypeptide; may inhibit exocrine activity of the pancreas

66

where is the thymus located

lower neck and anterior thorax

67

function of thymus

site where T lymphocytes arise from precursor cells (transformation of lymphocytes stimulated by thymic hormones

68

what are the 2 types of thymic hormones

peptide molecules; thymopoietin and thymosin

69

where are the main sources of sex hormones

testes and ovaries

70

what do interstitial cells of males secrete

androgens primarily testosterone

71

function of testosterone

promote sperm formation, and maintains secondary sex characteristics

72

female androgens are secreted by

theca folliculi

73

what converts androgens to estrogen

by follicular granulosa cells

74

function of estorgen

maintains secondary sex characteristics

75

function of progesterone

preps uterus for pregnancy

76

describe the endocrine cells found in the heart

atria contain atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)

77

what endocrine cells occur w/in the GI tract

enteroendocrine cells

78

describe the endocrine cells found in the placenta

sustains fetus and secretes several steroid protein hormones

79

describe the endocrine function of the kidneys

cells of juxtaglomerular complex (JGA) secrete renin

endothelia cells/interstitial CT secrete erythropoietin

80

describe the endocrine function of the skin

modified cholesterol molecules convert to a precursor of vitamin D

81

type of disorder is gigantism

pituitary disorder; hyper-secretion of GH in children

82

pituitary dwarfism

hypo-secretion of GH

83

what type of disorder is diabetes insipidus

pituitary disorder; pars nervosa doesn't make enough ADH

84

diabetes mellitus is what type of disorder

disorder of the pancreas

85

what is the cause of diabetes mellitus

insufficient secretion of insulin, and resistance of body cells to the effects of insulin

86

describe type 1 diabetes

sudden development usually before age 15

T cell-meidated autoimmune response destroys beta cells

87

describe type 2 diabetes

adult onset (40 yrs), cells have lowered sensitivity to insulin, controlled by dietary changes and regular exercise

88

what is Graves disease

most common type of hyperthyroidism; immune system makes abnormal antibodies (over secretion of TH by follicle cells), leads to nervousness, weight loss, seating, and rapid HR

89

what is myxedema

adult hypothyroidism; antibodies attack/destroy thyroid tissue, low metabolic rate/weight gain common symptoms

90

cause of endemic goiter

lack of iodine in diet

91

what is cretinism

hypothyroidism in children, results in short, disproportionate body; thick tongue; and mental retardation

92

cause of Cushing's syndrome

caused by hyper-secretion of glucocorticoid hormones-usually a pituitary tumor

93

addison's disease

hypo-secretory disorder of the adrenal cortex, deficiencies of both mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids

94

where does the thyroid gland form from

a chickening of endoderm on the floor of the pharynx

95

where do the parathyroids and thymus gland form from

endoderm lining the pharyngeal pouches

96

where does the pineal gland originate from

ependymal cells

97

where does the pituitary gland originate from

adenohypophysis originates from roof of mouth

neurophypophysis grows inferiorly from the floor of the brain

98

where do the adrenal glans from from

adrenal medulla- neural crest cells of nearby sympathetic trunk ganglia

adrenal cortex- mesoderm lining the coelom

99

what happens to the anterior pituitary as we age

increase in CT and lipofuscin, decrease in vascularization and # of hormone-secreting cells

100

what happens to the adrenal cortex as we age

normal rates of glucocorticoid secretion continue

101

what happens to the adrenal medulla as we age

no age-relatd changes in catecholamines

102

what happens to thyroid hormones as we age

decrease slightly w/ age

103

what happens to parathyroid glands as we age

little change w/ aging

104

what happens to GH, DHEA, and sex hormones as we age

marked drops in secretion w/ age