E3 Ch. 15 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in E3 Ch. 15 Deck (63):
1

what is the ANS and what does it innervate

a system of motor neurons, is the general visceral division of PNS, innervates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands

2

what visceral functions does the ANA regulate

HR, BP, digestion, and urination

3

what two chain of motor neurons does the ANS have

preganglionic neuron and postganglionic neuron

4

why is conduction slower in the ANS vs the somatic NS

axons are thinly myelinated/non-myelinated, and motor neuron synapses in a ganglion

5

sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the NS work together to cause what types of effects

opposite

6

during extreme situations (i.e. fear, rage, exercise, etc.) ___ division mobilizes the body, AKA "fight or flight"

sympathetic

7

___ division controls routine maintenance functions

parasympathetic

8

what are some changes that happen to the body during extreme situations where the sympathetic division is initiated

increased HR, breathing rate, increased blood/oxygen to skeletal muscles, vasoconstriction of other blood vessels, dilate pupils and bronchioles, and inhibit motility of digestive and urinary tracts

9

when is the parasympathetic division active

when body is at rest

10

which does the thoracolumbsr division and craniosacral division belong to

thoracolumbar= sympathetic

craniosacral= parasympathetic

11

compare the length of postganglionic fibers b/t sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions

sympathetic-long

parasympathetic- short

12

compre the branching of fibers b/t sympathetic fiber and parasympathetic fibers

sympathetic fibers- highly branched (influence many organs at once)

parasympathetic fibers-few branches (localized effect)

13

compare the types of neurotransmitters released by postganglionic axons b/t the sympathetic and parasympathetic NS

sympathetic- norepinephrine (adrenergic)

parasympathetic- acetylcholine (cholinergic)

14

where does the cranial outflow of the parasympathetic division originate and what does it innervate

originates from brain, innervates organs of head, neck, thorax, and abdomen

15

what does the sacral outflow of the parasympathetic division innervate

remaining abdominal and pelvic organs

16

preganglionic fibers from the cranial outflow run via which set of nerves

oculomotor (III), facial (VII), glossopharyngeal (IX), and vagus (X)

17

what do the parasympathetic fibers innervate, where are preganglinic and postganglionic cell bodies locateed in the oculomotor nerve

parasympathetic fibers innervate smooth muscles in eye (pupil constriction)

preganglionic cell bodies located in oculomotor nucleus in midbrain

postganglionc cell bodies lie in ciliary ganglion

18

facial nerve; what do parasympathetic fibers stimulate, lacrimal nucleus location, and superior salivatory nucleus location

parasympathetic fibers stimulate secretion of glands in head

lacrimal nucleus located in pons, synapse in pterygopalatine ganglion

superior salivatory nucleus located in pons, synapes in submandibular ganglion

19

glossopharyngeal nerve; parasympatheic fibers stimulate, lacrimal nucleus location, areas of synapse

stimulate secretion of glands in head

lacrimal nucleus located in pons

synapse in pterygopalatine ganglion, and submandibular ganglion

20

what doe the outflow via the vagus nerve innervate

visceral organs of thorax and most of the abdomen

21

what does outflow via the vagus nerve stimulate

digestion, reduction in HR, and BP

22

where are the preganglionic cell bodies of outflow via the vagus nerve located

dorsal motor nucleus in medulla

23

where are postganglionic neurons of outflow via the vagus nerve located

confined w/in walls of organs being innervated, cell bodies form intramural ganglia

24

vagus nerves send branches though what plesuses?

autonomic nerve plexuses (cardiac, pulmonary, esophageal, celiac, and superior mesenteric plesuses)

25

where does sacral outflow emerge, and innervate

emerges from S2-S4, innervates organs of pelvis and lower abdomen

26

where are the preganglionic cell bodies of sacral outflow located

in visceral motor region of spinal gray matter

27

how do axons run in sacral outflow run, what do they form and run through

axons run in ventral roots to ventral rami, form pelvic splanchnic nerves, and run through inferior hypogastric plexus

28

what doe the preganglionic fibers of the sympathetic division form

lateral gray horn

29

what does the sympathetic division supply

visceral organs in internal body cavities and structures of superficial body regions

30

where are sympathetic trunk ganglia located, linked by, and other names

located on both sides of vertebral column, linked by short nerves into sympathetic trunks, AKA chain ganglia and paravertebral ganglia

31

sympathetic trunk ganglia are jointed to what by what

joined to ventral rami by white and gray rami communicantes

32

how does collateral ganglia differ from sympathetic trunk ganglia

1. unpaired, not segmentally arranged
2. occurs only in abdomen/pelvis
3. lie anterior to vertebral column

33

name the main ganglia of collateral ganglia

celiac, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric, and inferior hypogastric ganglia

34

preganglionic neurons in the thoracolumbar spinal cord of the sympathetic division send motor axons though

adjacent ventral root into spinal nerve, then white ramus communicans and to the associated sympthetic trunk ganglion

35

what are the 3 pathways that preganglionic axons of the sympathetic division follow

1. synapses w/ postganglionic neuron at same level it exits

2. axons ascends/descends in sympathetic trunk to synapse in another ganglion

3. axon passes though sympathetic trunk and exits on splanchnic nerve

36

what does the gray rami contain

only postganglionic fibers traveling to peripheral structures, fibers nonmyelinated

37

what does the white rami contain

preganglionic fibers traveling to sympathetic trunk ganglia, fibers are myelinated

38

where do preganglionic fibers of sympathetic pathways to the head originate

in spinal cord at T1-T4, fibers ascend in sympathetic trunk, synapse in superior cervical ganglion

39

pathways to the head postganglionic fibers associated with large arteries carried to what structures

glands, smooth muscle, and vessels throughout the head

40

pathways to thoracic organs preganglionic fibers originate from

spinal levels T1-T6, synapse in nearest sympathetic trunk ganglion

41

pathway to thoracic organs postganglionic fibers run where

directly to organ supplied

42

function of sympathetic fibers to throracic organs

increase HR, dialte bronchioles, dilate blood vessels to heart wall, inhibit muscles and glands in the esophagus and digestive system

43

describe the pathway of somatic motor innervation

1. cell body located in ventral horn of gray matter
2. long axon extends from ventral root- innervate skeletal muscle cell

44

describe the pathway of sympathetic division of ANS innervation

1. cell body of preganglionic neurons located @lateral horn of gray matter (T1-L2)
2. preganglionic axon synapse w/ postganglioic neuron @peripheral ganglion
3. long postganglionic axon from peripheral ganglion to target organ
4. same time preganglionic axons emrege T8-L1 to innervate adrenal medulla, release epinephrine and noreepinIIephrine into surrounding capillaries

45

describe the pathway of parasympathetic division of ANS innervation

1. cell bodies of preganglionic neurons located @gray matter of brain stem (CN III, VII, IX, X) and sacral region (S2-S4)
2. preganglionic axon synapse w/ postganglionic neuron close/w/in target organ
3. short postganglionic axon innervates target organ

46

preganglionic fibers in the pathway to abdominal organs originate where

T5-L2

47

preganglionic fibers in the pathway to the pelvic organs originate where

T10-L2

48

what is the role of the adrenal medulla in the sympathetic division

major organ, constitutes largest sympathetic ganglia, secrete noreepinephrine and epinephrine

49

what types of sensations do general visceral sensory neurons monitor w/in visceral organs

stretch, tempt, chemical changes, irritation

50

where are the cell bodies of general visceral sensory neurons located

dorsal root ganglion

51

no pain results when visceral organs are cut so when does visceral pain result

from chemical irritation or inflammation, often perceived to be of somatic origin

52

what participates in visceral reflex arcs

visceral sensory and autonomic neurons, some simple spinal reflexes, others don't involve CNS (strictly peripheral reflexes)

53

what type of control is ANS under

not under direct voluntary control

54

what activities are regulated by CNS

brain stem, spinal cord, hypothalamus, amygdaloid body, and cerebral cortex

55

main integration center of the ANS

hypothalamus

56

function of the medial and anterior parts of the hypothalamus

direct parasympathetic functions

57

function of the lateral and posterior parts of the hypothalamus

direct sympathetic functions

58

amygdaloid body

main limbic region for emotions

59

raynaud's disease

characterized by constriction of blood vessels, provoked by exposure to cold or by emotional stress

60

achalasia of the cardia

defect in the autonomic innervation of the esophagus

61

congenital megacolon (Hirschsprung's disease)

birth defect, parasympathetic innervation of distal large intestine fails to develop correctly, feces/gas accumulate proximal to defect

62

where do the preganglionic neurons of the ANS develop from

neural tube

63

where do postganglionic neurons develop from

neural crest