E4 Ch. 19 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in E4 Ch. 19 Deck (61):
1

describe the pulmonary circuit

right side of heart receives oxygen-poor blood from body and pumps it to the lungs

2

describe the systemic circuit

left side of heart receives oxygenated blood from lungs and pumps throughout the body

3

where does the atria receive blood from

receives blood from the pulmonary and systemic circuits

4

function of ventricles

pumping chambers of the heart

5

how much does a typical healthy heart weight

250-350 grams

6

where does the apex of the heart lie

to the left of the midline

7

what is the base of the heart

the broad posterior surface

8

which ribs is the superior right of the heart located b/t

costal cartilage of 3rd rib and sternum

9

where is the inferior right of the heart located

costal cartilage of 6th rib lateral to sternum

10

where is the superior left of the heart located

costal cartilage of 2nd rib lateral to sternum

11

where is the inferior left of the heart located

lies in the 5th intercostal space at the midclavicular line

12

name the 2 primary layers of the pericardium

fibrous pericardium and serous pericardium

13

describe the fibrous pericardium

strong layer of dense connective tissue

14

name the two layers that form the serous pericardium

parietal layer and visceral layer of the serous pericardium

15

name the 3 layers of the heart wall

epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium

16

describe the epicardium

visceral layer of the serous pericardium

17

describe the myocardium

consist of cardiac muscle, muscle arranged n circular and spiral patterns

18

describe the endocardium

endothelium resting on a layer of connective tissue, lines the internal walls of the heart

19

though what vessels does the right atrium receive oxygen poor blood from the systemic circuit

superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and coronary sinus

20

pectinate muscles

ridges inside anterior of right atrium

21

crista terminalis

landmark used to locate veins entering right atrium

22

fossa ovalis

depression in interatrial septum, remnant of foramen ovale

23

what is another name for the tricuspid valve

atrioventricular valve (AV valve)

24

which of the heart ventricles makes up the posterior surface

left atrium

25

trabeculae carneae

the ridges lining the ventricles of the heart wall

26

list the functions of the cardiac skeleton

anchors valve cusps, precent over dilation of valve openings, main point of insertion for cardiac muscle, blocks direct spread of electrical impulses

27

describe the "lub-dup" sound of valves

1st sound "lub"- AV valves closing

2nd sound "dup"- semilunar valves closing

28

systole

contraction of a heart chamber

29

diastole

expansion of a heart chamber

30

how do the walls of the atria and ventricles differ in thickness

atria- thin walls
ventricles- thick walls

31

why is the left ventricles 3X thicker than the right ventricle

exerts more pumping force need to pump blood to the systemic circuit which has greater resistance to blood flow

32

list the 3 types of cell junctions found w/in the intercalated discs

desmosomes, fasciae adherens, and gap junctions

33

what important chemical is used to trigger the heart to contract

Ca2+

34

sinoatrial (SA) node

sets the inherent rate of contraction; HR

35

describe the conducting pathway from the SA node

internodal pathway to AV node to AV bundle to bundle branches to purkinje fibers

36

cardioinhibitory center influences what

parasympathetic neurons

37

cardioacceleratory center influences what

sympathetic neurons

38

function of the coronary arteries

blood supply to the muscular walls and tissues of the heart; right and left coronary artery

39

function of coronary sinus

runs in the posterior part of coronary sulcus, returns majority of venus blood from the heart to the right atrium

40

atherosclerosis

coronary artery disease; fatty deposits

41

angina pectoris

chest pain

42

myocardial infraction

blocked coronary artery; heart attack

43

heart failure

progressive weakening of the heart, cannot meet body's demands for oxygenated blood

44

congestive heart failure (CHF)

heart enlarges, pumping efficiency declines

45

pulmonary arterial hypertension

enlargement and potential failure of right ventricle

46

arrythmias

variation from normal heart rhythm

47

ventricular fibrillation

raid, random firing of electrical impulses in the ventricles, results from crippled conducting system, common cause of cardiac arrest

48

what area of the chest is the aortic valve best heard

2nd intercostal space at right sternal margin

49

what area of the chest is the pulmonary valve best heard

2nd intercostal space at left sternal margin

50

what area of the chest is the tricuspid valve best heard

right sternal margin of 5th intercostal space

51

what area of the chest is the mitral valve best heard

5th intercostal space in line w/ middle of clavicle

52

one full cycle includes what

contraction and relaxation of heart is one cycle

53

atrial fibrillation

impulses circle w/in atrial myocardium, stimulating AV node, promotes formation of clots (strokes), characterized by anxiety, fatigue, shortness of breath, palpitations

54

list the chambers of the heart that form from tail to head

sinus venous, atrium, ventricle, and bulbus cordis

55

what does the sinus venosus become

smooth-walled part of right atrium, coronary sinus, and SA node

56

what does the atrium develop into

ridged parts of right and atria

57

what does the ventricle develop into

gives rise to left ventricle

58

what does the bulbus cordis

rise to the pulmonary trunk and 1st part of aorta, left ventricle

59

how early can congenital heart defects be traced

2 months of development

60

describe two basic categories of defect

inadequately oxygenated blood reaches body tissue, and ventricles labor under increased workload

61

what are some age-related changes that happen to the heart

hardening/thickening of heart valve cusps, decline in cardiac reserve, and fibrosis of cardiac muscle