E4 Ch. 18 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in E4 Ch. 18 Deck (40):
1

what are the 2 divisions of the circulatory system

cardiovascular and lymphatic

2

blood is a transport mechanism for what

nutrients, signaling molecules, respiratory gases, waste products

3

how much blood is in men and women

M- 5-6 liters
F- 4-5 liters

4

what is hematocrit

the measure of % RBC
M- 47% +/- 5%
F- 42% +/- 5%

5

what is the buffy coat

portion of blood composed of leukocytes and platelets, present at junction of plasma and RBCs

6

how much water is found in blood plasma

90%

7

what are the 3 main proteins found in blood plasma

albumin, globulins, and fibrinogen

8

function of albumin

prevents water from diffusing out of blood vessels

9

globulins

included antibodies and blood proteins that transport lipids, iron, and copper

10

fibrinogen

one of the molecules involved in chemical reactions for blood clotting

11

what are the different types of blood cells

erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets

12

what colors do acidic dye and basic dye stain

acidic dye- eosin; pink

basic dye-methylene blue; blue/purple

13

how much erythrocytes are found in men and women

M-5.2-5.8 million cells/cubic millimeter

F- 4.3-5.2 million cells/cubic millimeter

14

describe erythrocytes

7.5 micometer in diameter, most numerous formed element, have no organelles or nuclei, packed w/ hemoglobin

15

what gives blood its red color

oxidation of iron atoms of hemoglobin molecules found on erythrocytes

16

describe how the shape of erythrocytes contribute to respiratory function

biconcave shape increases surface area (97% hemoglobin) which allows it to pick up O2 at lung capillaries and release O2 across other tissue capillaries

17

amount of leukocytes (WBC) found in blood

4800-11,000/cubic millimeter

18

function of WBC

protect body from infectious microorganisms, function outside bloodstream in loose connective tissue

19

diapedesis

circulating leukocytes leave the capillaries

20

where do leukocytes originate from

bone marrow

21

what are the 2 kinds of leukocytes

granulocytes and agranulocytes

22

how many nucleus lobes do neutrophils have and what type of stains do they pick up

2-6 lobes, pick up acidic and basic stains

23

function of neutrophils

attracted by bacterial products and are the 1st line of defense in inflammatory response, phagocytize and destroy bacteria, release enzymes into extracellular matrix of infected tissue

24

describe the physical aspects of eosinophils

large granules and stain red

25

function of eosinophils

play a role in ending allergic reactions by phagocytizing allergens, secrete enzymes that degrade histamines

26

describe basophils and its function

2 lobe nucleus, function in inflammation mediation, granules secrete histamines, direct later stages of inflammation in allergies and parasitic infections, similar function to mast cells

27

describe lymphocytes and its functions

nucleus stains dark purple, effective infighting infectious organism, act against specific foreign molecule (antigen), most important cells of immune system

28

describe the 2 main classes of lymphocyte

T cells- attack foreign cells directly

B cells- multiply to become plasma cells; secrete antibodies

29

describe monocytes and its function

largest leukocytes, nucleus kidney shaped, transform into macrophages; phagocytic cells

30

where do platelets come from

cell fragments that break off from megakaryocytes, function in blood clotting

31

hematopoiesis

process by which blood cells are formed in red marrow, 100 billion new blood cells formed each day

32

function of red marrow

actively generates new blood cells, contains immature erythrocytes

33

in adults where is red marrow located

b/t trabeculae of spongy bone of axial skeleton, girdles, proximal epiphyses of humerus and femur

34

what do lymphoid stem cells give rise to

lymphocytes

35

what do myeloid stem cells give rise to

all other blood cells

36

polycythemia

disorder of erythrocytes; abnormal excess of erythrocytes

37

anemia

erythrocyte levels or hemoglobin concentrations are low

38

sickle cell disease

inherited condition, results from defective hemoglobin molecule, erythrocytes distort into sickle shape

39

leukemia

disorder of leukocytes; form of cancer, classified as lymphoblastic or myeloblastic

40

thrombocytopenia

disorder of platelets; abnormally low concentration of platelets