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Flashcards in Ch. 5 Deck (58)
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1

what are the two later of the skin

epidermis and dermis

2

what is hypodermis composed of

areolar an adipose tissue

3

what are the 5 important functions of the skin

protection, body temperature regulation, excretion, production of vitamin D, sensory reception

4

what are the 4 main cell types found in the epidermis

keratinocytes, melanocytes, tactile epithelial cells, dendritic cells

5

keratinocytes

located in stratum spinosum produce keratin, fibrous protein

6

melanocytes

found in basal layer; manufacture and secrete pigment

7

tactile epithelial cells

found in basal layer; attached to sensory nerve endings

8

dendritic cells

found in stratum spinosum; part of immune system; macrophage-like

9

what are the layers of the epidermis

stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucid (only in thick skin), stratum corneum

10

what happens in the stratum basale

cells actively divide

11

what does the stratum basal contain

tactile epithelial cells and melanocytes

12

what does the stratum spinosum contain

thick bundles of intermediate filaments, dendritic cells

13

what does stratum granulosum consist of

few layers of keratinocytes

14

what do keratinocytes contain

keratohyaline granules- help form keratin, lamellar granules-contain waterproofing glycolipid

15

descrie stratum lucidum

occurs only in thick skin (palms and soles), composed of a few rows of flat, dead keratinocytes

16

describe the stratum corneum

thick layers of dead keratinocytes and thickened plasma membranes, protects skin against abrasion and penetration

17

what are the two layers of the dermis

papillary dermis (includes dermal papillae) and reticular dermis (deeper layer)

18

describe the papillary dermis

includes dermal papillae, increase surface area for exchange of gases, nutrients, and wastes

19

what are epidermal ridges (friction ridges)

elevation of dermal ridges, AKA fingerprints

20

purpose of epidermal ridges

increases gripping ability of hands and feet

21

cleavage lines

separation b/t collagen fibers

22

flexure lines

deep creases in palms, wrists, soles, finger, and toes

23

what are the two types of vascular plexuses found in the reticular dermis

dermal plexus, and sub papillary plexus

24

what type of tissue is in the hypodermis

areolar and adipose connective tissue

25

function of hypodermis

anchors skin to underlying structures, helps insulate body

26

what is another name for the hypodermis

superficial fascia

27

name the 3 pigments that contribute to skin color

melanin, carotene, hemoglobin

28

what is melanin made of

made from tyrosine

29

carotene

yellowish pigment from carrots and tomatoes

30

hemoglobin

caucasian skin contains little melanin, allows crimson color of blood to show though