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Flashcards in Ch. 5 Deck (58):
1

what are the two later of the skin

epidermis and dermis

2

what is hypodermis composed of

areolar an adipose tissue

3

what are the 5 important functions of the skin

protection, body temperature regulation, excretion, production of vitamin D, sensory reception

4

what are the 4 main cell types found in the epidermis

keratinocytes, melanocytes, tactile epithelial cells, dendritic cells

5

keratinocytes

located in stratum spinosum produce keratin, fibrous protein

6

melanocytes

found in basal layer; manufacture and secrete pigment

7

tactile epithelial cells

found in basal layer; attached to sensory nerve endings

8

dendritic cells

found in stratum spinosum; part of immune system; macrophage-like

9

what are the layers of the epidermis

stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucid (only in thick skin), stratum corneum

10

what happens in the stratum basale

cells actively divide

11

what does the stratum basal contain

tactile epithelial cells and melanocytes

12

what does the stratum spinosum contain

thick bundles of intermediate filaments, dendritic cells

13

what does stratum granulosum consist of

few layers of keratinocytes

14

what do keratinocytes contain

keratohyaline granules- help form keratin, lamellar granules-contain waterproofing glycolipid

15

descrie stratum lucidum

occurs only in thick skin (palms and soles), composed of a few rows of flat, dead keratinocytes

16

describe the stratum corneum

thick layers of dead keratinocytes and thickened plasma membranes, protects skin against abrasion and penetration

17

what are the two layers of the dermis

papillary dermis (includes dermal papillae) and reticular dermis (deeper layer)

18

describe the papillary dermis

includes dermal papillae, increase surface area for exchange of gases, nutrients, and wastes

19

what are epidermal ridges (friction ridges)

elevation of dermal ridges, AKA fingerprints

20

purpose of epidermal ridges

increases gripping ability of hands and feet

21

cleavage lines

separation b/t collagen fibers

22

flexure lines

deep creases in palms, wrists, soles, finger, and toes

23

what are the two types of vascular plexuses found in the reticular dermis

dermal plexus, and sub papillary plexus

24

what type of tissue is in the hypodermis

areolar and adipose connective tissue

25

function of hypodermis

anchors skin to underlying structures, helps insulate body

26

what is another name for the hypodermis

superficial fascia

27

name the 3 pigments that contribute to skin color

melanin, carotene, hemoglobin

28

what is melanin made of

made from tyrosine

29

carotene

yellowish pigment from carrots and tomatoes

30

hemoglobin

caucasian skin contains little melanin, allows crimson color of blood to show though

31

nails

scalelike modifications of epidermis make of hard keratin

32

list the parts of the nail

free edge, body, root, nail folds, eponychium

33

describe hair

flexible strand of dead, keratinized cells

34

what are the parts of hair

root (embedded in skin), and shaft (projections above skin's surface)

35

name the 3 concentric layers of keratinized cells hair contains

medulla (center core), cortex (surrounds medulla), and cuticle (outermost layer)

36

hair follicles

extend from epidermis into dermis

37

hair bulb

deep, expanded end of he hair follicle

38

root plexus

knot of sensory nerves around hair bulb

39

arrestor pili muscle

bundle of smooth muscle, hair stands erect when arrector pili contracts

40

villus hairs

body hairs of women and children

41

terminal hairs

hair of scalp, axillary, and pubic area (at puberty)

42

sebaceous glands are found one entire body except

palms and soles

43

function of sebum

collects dirt; softens and lubricates hair and skin

44

what is sweat

a blood filtrate, 99% water w/ some salts

45

what are the two types o sweat glands

eccrine gland (merocrine) and apocrine gland

46

what do eccrine gland (merocrine) produce

produce true sweat

47

where are apocrine glands confined

axillary, anal, and genital areas

48

what do procaine glands produce

special kind of sweat, musky odor attracts mate; signal info. about person's immune system etc.

49

name 2 modified apocrine lgands

ceruminous glands and mammary glands

50

describe first degree burns

only upper epidermis is damaged

51

describe second degree burns

upper part of dermis is also damaged; blisters appear, skin heals w/ little scarring

52

describe third degree burns

consumes thickens of skin, area appears white, red, or blackened

53

what are the 3 types of skin cancer

basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma

54

what type of skin cancer is the least malignant and most common

basal cell carcinoma

55

what is the most dangerous type of skin cancer

melanoma

56

where does the epidermis develop from

embryonic ectoderm

57

where does the dermis and hypodermis develop from

mesoderm

58

what do melanocytes develop from

neural crest cells