E3 Ch. 14 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in E3 Ch. 14 Deck (104):
1

the PNS is functionally divided into what 2 divisions

sensory and motor divisions

2

what are the sensory inputs and motor outputs subdivided into

somatic and visceral, general and special

3

what is the general visceral motor part of the PNS

autonomic nervous system (ANS)

4

what are the divisions of the ANS

parasympathetic and sympathetic

5

describe nerves in the PNS

bundles of peripheral axons

6

describe ganglia in the PNS

clusters of peripheral neuronal cll bodies

7

what are motor endings and their function

axon terminals of motor neurons, innervate effectors (muscle fibers and glands)

8

what are peripheral sensory receptors and their function

structures that pick up sensory stimuli, initiate signals in sensory axons

9

what are the 2 main categories of sensory receptors

free nerve endings of sensory neurons, and complete receptor cells

10

function of free nerve endings of sensory neurons

monitor general sensory info

11

function of complete receptor cells

specialized epithelial cells or small neurons, monitor most types of special sensory info.

12

sensory receptors are also classified according to what

location, type of stimulus detected, and structure

13

describe exteroceptors in terms of location, where they receive stimuli, and types received

sensitive to stimuli arising outside the body, located at/near body surface, include receptors for touch, pressure, pain, and tempt.

14

describe interoceptors in terms of location, where they receive stimuli, and types received

receive stimuli from internal viscera, located in digestive tube, bladder, and lungs, monitor changes in chemical concentration, taste, stretching of tissues, and tempt.

15

describe proprioceptors in terms of location, where they receive stimuli, and types received

located in skeletal muscles, tendons, joints, and ligaments, monitor degree of stretch, send inputs on body movement to CNS

16

what type os stimuli do mechanoreceptors respond to

mechanical forces, touch, pressure, stretch, vibration, and itch

17

baroreceptors

monitor BP

18

what type of stimuli do thermoreceptors respond to

tempt. changes

19

what type of stimuli do chemoreceptors respond to

chemical in solution

20

what types of stimuli do photoreceptors respond to

light, located in eye

21

what type of stimuli do nociceptors respond to

harmful stimuli that result in pain

22

general sensory receptors are widely distributed and nerve endings of sensory neurons monitor what types of stimuli

touch, pressure, vibration, stretch, pain, tempt, and proprioception

23

what 2 groups are general sensory receptors divided into

free nerve endings, and encapsulated nerve endings

24

where are free nerve endings most abundant

in epithelia and underlying connective tissue

25

what type of stimuli do free nerve endings respond to and monitor

respond to pain and temp. monitor affective senses

26

name the 2 specialized types of free nerve endings

epithelial tactile complexes (merkel discs), and hair follicle receptors

27

describe epithelial tactile complexes (merkel discs)

consist of tactile epithelial cell innervated by sensory nerve endings, slowly adapting receptors for light touch

28

describe hair follicle receptors

wrap around hair follicles, rapidly adapting receptors

29

describe the physical aspects of encapsulated nerve endings

consist of one or more end fibers of sensory neurons, enclosed in connective tissue, and are mechanoreceptors

30

what are the 4 main types of encapsulated nerve endings

tactile (meissner's) corpuscles, lamellar (pacinian) corpuscles, bulbous corpuscles (ruffini endings), and proprioceptors

31

describe tactile (meissner's) corpuscles, where they occur, type of stimuli received, and where they occur

spiraling nerve ending surrounded by Schwann cells, occur in dermal papillae, rapidly adapting receptor for discriminative touch, occur in sensitive, hairless ares of skin

32

describe Lemellar corpuscles, where they occur, and type of stimuli received

singel nerve ending surrounded by layers of flattened schwann cells, occur in hypodermis, sensitive to deep pressure-rapidly adapting receptors

33

function and location of bulbous corpuscles (ruffini endings)

dermis and respond to pressure, monitor continuous pressure on skin-adapt slowly

34

function of proprioceptors

monitor stretch in locomotory organs

35

name the 3 types of proprioceptors

muscle spindles, tendon organs, and joint kinesthetic receptors

36

function and location of muscle spindle proprioceptors

measure changing length of muscle, embedded in perimysium b/t muscle fascicles

37

intrafusal muscle fibers

modified skeletal muscle fibers located w/ in muscle spindles

38

anulospiral endings

located around middle of intrafusal fibers, stimulated by rate and degree of stretch

39

function and location of tendon organ proprioceptors

located near muscle-tendon junction, monitor tension w/in tendons

40

what are joint kinesthetic receptor proprioceptors

sensory nerve endings w/in joint cpasules

41

name the 4 types of joint kinesthetic receptor proprioceptors

lamellar corpuscles, bulbous corpuscles, free nerve endings, and receptors resembling tendon organs

42

where do the various cranial nerves attach to

nerves I-II attach to forebrain, all others attach to brain stem

43

which is the only cranial nerve that extends into the abdomen

CN X- vagus nerve

44

describe olfactory nerves, where are receptor cells are located, and what structures does it pass though

special visceral sensory- sense of smell, receptor cells located in olfactory epithelium of nasal cavity, pass though cribriform foramina of ethmoid bone

45

describe optic nerves, where they originate, and structures it passes through

special somatic sensory-vision, originate on retina of eye, pass though optic canals of sphenoid bone

46

describe oculomotor nerves, function, and structures it passes through

somatic motor funcntion-innervates 4 extrinsic eye muscles, visceral motor function: constricts pupil, controls shape of lens, pass through superior orbital fissure

47

list the 4 extrinsic eye muscles that the oculomotor nerves innervate

superior rectus, medial rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique

48

describe trochlear nerves, and structures it passes though

somatic motor function- innervate superior oblique muscle, pass ventrally/laterally around midbrain, superior orbital fissure

49

what are the 3 divisions of the trigeminal nerves

ophthalamic division (V1), maxillary division (V2), and mandibular division (V3)

50

where are the cell bodies of snesory neurons of the trigeminal nerves located

trigeminal ganglion

51

what are the pathways of the tribeminal nerve divisions

ophthalamic division (V1)- superior orbital fissure, maxillary division (V2)-foramen rotundum, mandibular division (V3)-foramen ovale; mandibular foramen

52

describe the abducens nerves and structure it passes though

somatic motor function, innervates lateral rectus muscle abducts eye, pass through superior orbital fissure

53

list the 3 different functions of facial nerves

sensory function, somatic motor function, and visceral motor function

54

describe the sensory function of the facial nerves

special visceral sensory from taste buds on anterior 2/3 of tongue

55

describe the somatic motor function of facial nerves

5 branches-innervae facial muscles

56

describe visceral motor function of the facial nerves

innervation of lacrimal glands, submandibular and sublingual salivary glands

57

what is the pathway of facial nerves

enter temporal bone though internal acoustic meatus

58

function of vestibulocochlear nerves and its pathway

sensory nerve of hearing and equilibrium, vestibular branch-speical somatic sensory: equilibrium, cochlear branch-speical somatic sensory: hearing, pathway from inner ear cavity, fibers pass through internal acoustic meatus

59

describe glossopharyngeal nerves

special visceral snesory from taste buds on posterior 1/3 of tongue, general visceral sensory

60

describe the somatic and visceral motor functions of glossopharyngeal nerves, and its pathway

somatic motor function-elevate pharynx during swallowing

visceral motor function- innervate parotid salivary gland

pathway- fibers pass through jugular foramen

61

describe the sensory, somatic motor, visceral motor functions, and pathway of the vagus nerves

sensory functions-general visceral sensory from thoracic and abdominal viscera, special visceral sensory-taste buds on epiglottis

somatic motor functions- skeletal muscles of pharynx and larynx

visceral motor functions-parasympathetic innervation to heart, lungs, abdominal viscera

pathway- fibers exit through jugular foramen

62

function of accessory nerves

somatic motor function- innervates trapezius and sternocleidomastoid

63

what are the accessory nerves formed from, structure they pass, and where they exit

formed from ventral rootlets of C1-C5, doesn't arise from brain stem, spinal rootlets merge to form this nerve, pas into skull though foramen magnum, exit skull through jugular foramen

64

function of hypoglossal nerves and where do they exit

somatic motor function, innervates tongue muscles, exit skull through hypoglossal canal

65

how many pairs of spinal nerves are found in the body

31

66

how many pairs of cervical nerves

8 (C1-C8)

67

how many pairs of thoracic nerves

12 (T1-T12)

68

how many pairs of lumbar nerves

5 (L1-L5)

69

how many pairs of sacral nerves

5 (S1-S5)

70

how many pairs of coccygeal nerves

1 (Co1)

71

what structure connects the spinal nerves to spinal cord

by dorsal root and ventral root

72

spinal nerves branch into what

dorsal ramus and ventral ramus, which contain sensory and motor fibers

73

function of rami communicantes

connect to base of ventral ramus, lead to sympathetic chain ganglia

74

what does the dorsal rami innervate

neat, segmented pattern innervate back muscles

75

what do intercostal nerves supply

intercostal muscles, skin, and abdominal wall

76

define nerve plexus

a network of nerves

77

where is the cervical plexus located

deep to sternocleidomastoid muscle

78

what forms the cervical plexus

formed by ventral rami of 1-4pcervical nerves (C1-C4)

79

name the most important nerve of the cervical plexus

phrenic nerve

80

what is the phrenic nerve made up of, and what does it innervate

formed from fibers C3-C5, innervates diaphragm

81

where is the brachial plexus located, formed by, and give rise to

lies in the neck and axilla, formed by ventral rami of C5-C8, cords give rise to main nerves of upper limb

82

musculocutaneous

main branch of lateral cord, innervates biceps brachii and brachialis

83

median

originates from both later and medial cords, innervates anterior forearm muscles and lateral palm

84

ulnar

branches from medial cord, innervates intrinsic hand muscles and skin of medial hand

85

list the nerves of form the posterior cord

radial and axillary

86

radial

continuation of posterior cord, largest branch of brachial plexus, innervates muscles of posterior upper limb

87

axillary

innervates deltoid and teres minor

88

describe te lumbar plexus

arise from L1-L4, smaller branches innervate posterior abdominal wall and psoas muscle, main branches innervate anterior thigh

89

femoral nerve

innervates anterior thigh muscles

90

obturator nerve

innervates adductor muscles

91

describe the sacral plexus

arises from spinal nerves L4-S4, caudal to lumbar plexus

92

sciatic nerve

largest nerve of the sacral plexus

93

name the 2 nerves found in one sheath that make up the sciatic nerve

tibial and common fibular (peroneal) nerve

94

tibial nerve

innervates most of the posterior lower limb

95

common fibular (peroneal) nerve

innervates muscles of anterolateral leg

96

superior and inferior gluteal nerves

innervate gluteal muscles

97

pudendal nerve

innervates muscles of perineum

98

dermatome

an area of skin, innervated by cutaneous branches of a single spinal nerve

99

describe shingles (herpes zoster)

viral infection, stem from chicken pox, often brought on by stress, experienced by people over 50b

100

migraine headache

relates to sensory innervation of cerebral arteries, which dilate and compress and irritate sensory nerve endings

101

what is peripheral neuropathy

pathological condition of peripheral nerves

102

symptoms of peripheral neuropathy

symptoms of sensory nerve: paresthesia, pain, burning, loss of sensation

symptoms of motor nerve: muscle weakness and paralysis

103

cases of peripheral neuropathy

trauma, repetitive use, systemic disorders (HIV, diabetes, vitamin B deficiency)

104

describe the PNS during weeks 4 and 5

spinal nerves form late in week 4, 31 pairs present, during week 5 nerves reach organs they innervate