E4 Ch. 22 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in E4 Ch. 22 Deck (69):
1

basic functions of respiratory system

supplies oxygen, disposes carbon dioxide

2

list the 4 processes involved in respiration

pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, transport of respiratory gases, internal respiration

3

list the respiratory organs

nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and smaller branches), lungs, and alveoli

4

the organs of the respiratory system are divided into

conducting zone and respiratory zone

5

what is the conducting zone

respiratory passageways that convey air; filter, humidify, and wram incoming air

6

what is the respiratory zone

site of gas exchange in lungs; includes structures that have alveoli

7

function of the nose

airway, moistens/warms/filters air, resonating chamber for speech, and houses olfactory receptors

8

what are the 2 types of mucous membranes found in the nasal cavity

olfactory and respiratory mucosa

9

describe olfactory mucosa

near roof of nasal cavity, houses olfactory (smell) receptors

10

describe respiratory mucosa

lines nasal cavity

11

what type of cells are found in the respiratory mucosa

pseudostratified ciliated columnar epi. goblet cells

12

which sensory nerve ending supply the respiratory mucosa

CN 5

13

where are the paranasal sinuses located

frontal, maxillary, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones

14

what are the 3 divisions of the pharynx

nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx

15

describe the nasopharynx

superior to point where food enters, only an air passageway, closed off during swallowing, uvula reflects superiorly

16

what structures are found in the nasopharynx

pharyngeal tonsil (adenoids), pharyngotympanic tube (auditory tube), and tubal tonsils

17

what are the 2 types of tonsils in the oropharynx

platine and lingual tonsils

18

what type of epithelium is found in the oropharynx

stratified squamous epi.

19

what are fauces

arch like entrance way that extend from soft palate to the epiglottis

20

what type of passageway is the laryngopharynx

food and air

21

type of cells found in the laryngopharynx

stratified squamous epi.

22

what are the 3 functions of they larynx

voice production, provides an open airway, routes air/food into proper channels

23

describe the framework of the larynx

arrangement of 9 cartilages

24

list the 9 cartilages that make up the larynx

thyroid, arytenoid, corniculate, cuneiform, epiglottis, rima glottidis, glottis, vocal folds, and vestibular folds

25

describe the thyroid cartilage

shield-shaped, forms laryngeal prominence (Adam's apple)

26

function of the epiglottis

tips inferiorly during swallowing

27

function of the vocal folds

true vocal cords; act in sound production

28

function of vestibular folds

false vocal cords; no role in sound production

29

what is the rima glottidis

medial opening b/t vocal folds

30

what structures make up the glottis

rima glottidis and vocal folds together

31

what type of tissue is found in the larynx

stratified squamous (superior portion) and pseudostratified ciliated columnar (inferior portion)

32

describe how voice production is done

length of vocal folds changes pitch, loudness depends on force of air across vocal folds

33

what is valsalva's maneuver

straining in the voice

34

what is the trachea

C-shaped cartilage rings keep airway open, descends to mediastinum

35

what is the trachealis located

b/t open ends of C-shaped cartilage rings along length of posterior trachea

36

what is the carina

marks where trachea divides into 2 primary bronchi

37

what type of cells are found in the trachea

pseudostratified ciliated columnar epi

38

list the order branching of the bronchi

Primary bronchi, secondary bronchi, tertiary bronchi, bronchioles, and terminal bronchioles

39

describe the respiratory bronchioles

gas exchange occurs where smooth muscle is absent, branch from terminal bronchioles lead to alveolar ducts then to alveolar sacs

40

how much alveoli does the lungs contain

around 400 million

41

describe type I alveolar cells

single layer of simple squamous epi. cells surrounded by basal lamina

42

what forms the respiratory membrane

alveolar and capillary walls plus their basal lamina

43

describe type II alveolar cells

scattered among type I alveolar cells, cuboidal, secrete surfactant

44

purpose of surfactant

reduces surface tension w/in alveoli

45

function of alveolar macrophages

remove thinest inhaled particles, migrate to bronchi, ciliary action takes alveolar macrophages to pharynx

46

describe the features of alveoli

surrounded by elastic fibers, interconnect by alveolar pores, internal surface-site for free movement of alveolar macrophages

47

what is the hilum part of the lungs

indentation on mediastinal surface, region where blood vessels, bronchi, and nerves enter/exit lung

48

what is the root part of the lungs

structures that enter/leave lungs at the hilum (blood vessels, bronchi, and nerves

49

function of pulmonary arteries

deliver oxygen-poor blood to lungs

50

function of pulmonary veins

carry oxygenated blood to heart

51

what do parasympathetic and sympathetic innervations affect the airways

parasympathetic- constrict airways

sympathetic- dilate airways

52

what is the pleurae and what are the two types

a double-layered sac surrounding each lung

parietal and visceral pleura

53

what is the pleural cavity

potential space b/t visceral and parietal pleurae

54

what are the two phases of pulmonary ventilation

inspiration (inhalation) and expiration (exhalation)

55

when does inspiration (inhalation) occur

when volume of thoracic cavity increase which decreases internal gas pressure

diaphragm flattens and contraction of intercostal muscle raises the ribs

56

what structures are needed for deep inspiration

scalenes, sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis minor, erector spinae (extends back)

57

describe the action of quiet expiration

passive process; inspiratory muscles relax, diaphragm moves superiorly, volume of thoracic cavity decreases

58

describe the action of forced expiration

active process, produced by contraction of internal/external oblique muscles, and transversus abdominis muscle

59

what is VGR and where is it located

ventral respiratory group; located in reticular formation in medulla oblongata, neurons generate respiratory rhythm

60

function of the respiratory center

generates baseline respiraton rate in the reticular formation of the medulla oblongata

61

function of chemoreceptors in ventilation

sensitive to rising/falling oxygen levels

62

where are central chemoreceptors located

medulla

63

where are peripheral chemoreceptors located

aortic bodies and carotid bodies

64

what is bronchial asthma

type of allergic inflammation, hypersensitivity to irritants in air/stress

65

what are the characteristics of an asthma attack

contration of bronchiole smooth muscle, and secretion of mucus in airways

66

what is cystic fibrosis (CF)

inherited disease; exocrine gland function disrupted, over secretion of viscous mucus affects respiratory system

67

what is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

difficulty airflow in/out of lungs, obstructive emphysema, chronic bronchitis, history of smoking

68

what does the laryngotracheal bud form

trachea, bronchi, and bronchi subdivisions

69

describe how the respiratory system ages

# of glands in nasal mucosa declines, nose dries (produce thick mucus), thoracic wall rigid, lungs lose elasticity, oxygen levels in blood may fall